Macedon

Definition

by
published on 02 September 2009
Alexander the Great (Egisto Sani)

A country in northern Greece, Macedon (or Macedonia) was first inhabited by the Mackednoi tribe who, according to Herodotus, were the first to call themselves 'Hellenes’ (later applied to all Greeks) and who gave the land their name. For centuries the Mackednoi had little to do with southern Greece. Even after the Persian invasion of 480 (during which Macedonia was under Persian rule) Macedon preferred to remain aloof from the rest of Greece and the squabbles and fighting which constantly took place between the Greek city-states. All of this changed under the rule of King Phillip II (382-336 BCE) who accomplished the seemingly impossible goal of Greek unity by conquering the southern city-states and bringing them under Macedonian dominion.

After Philip’s assassination in 336 his throne passed to his son, Alexander the Great, who would spread Greek culture and civilization across the known world of antiquity. Macedon fell out of favor with southern Greece after the death of Alexander with many Greeks resenting Macedonian rule and virulent antagonism expressed toward anything even remotely Macedonian. Macedon continued as an autonomous and powerful kingdom until it was annexed by Rome, along with the rest of Greece, around 148 BCE.


About the Author

Joshua J. Mark
A freelance writer and part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. He teaches ancient history, writing, literature, and philosophy.

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Timeline

Visual Timeline
  • c. 437 BCE
    Athens founds the colony of Amphipolis in northern Macedonia.
  • 364 BCE
    Macedonian general Perdikkas III successfully defends Amphipolis against Athenian attack.
  • c. 360 BCE
    Traditional founding date of Philippi in Macedon with its original name as Crenides.
  • 359 BCE
    Phillip II takes throne of Macedonia.
  • 359 BCE - 336 BCE
    Reign of Philip II of Macedon.
  • 357 BCE
    Marriage of Olympias to Philip II of Macedonia.
  • c. 357 BCE
    Philip II of Macedon renames the Macedonian city of Crrenides after himself: Philippi.
  • 356 BCE
    Birth of Macedonian commander Hephaestion.
  • c. 347 BCE
    Athenian orator Demosthenes is sent on a diplomatic embassy to the court of Philip II of Macedon.
  • 343 BCE
    King Philip II of Macedon summons Aristotle to tutor his young son Alexander (later 'The Great').
  • 342 BCE
    Demosthenes is charged with organising a league of Greek city-states for war against Macedon.
  • 339 BCE
    Philip II of Macedon fights the Scythians.
  • 336 BCE
    Marraige of Olympias' brother Alexander to her daughter Cleopatra.
  • 324 BCE
    Death of Macedonian commander Hephaestion.
  • 319 BCE
    Death of Antipater, regent of Macedonia.
  • 317 BCE
    Death of Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great.
  • c. 316 BCE
    Thessalonica is founded by Cassander.
  • 310 BCE
    Assassination of Roxanne and Alexander IV, wife and son of Alexander the Great.
  • 294 BCE - c. 288 BCE
    Demetrius I rules as king of Macedon.
  • 288 BCE
    Pyrrhus of Epirus becomes ruler of Macedon.
  • 288 BCE
    When his army deserts him Demetrius I flees Macedon.
  • 284 BCE
    Lysimachus drives Pyrrhus out of Macedon.
  • 273 BCE
    Pyrrhus of Epirus attacks Macedon and Sparta.
  • 225 BCE
    Macedonians bring an army across the Isthmus to face another Achaian force trying to take Corinth.
  • 222 BCE
    The Achaean League and Antigonos III of Macedon defeat Sparta at Sellasia.
  • 214 BCE - 205 BCE
    First Macedonian War: Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon.
  • 203 BCE
    The Seleucid king, Antiochus III Megas signs an alleged treaty with Philip V of Macedon to divide Egypt and its overseas possessions between them.
  • 200 BCE - 196 BCE
    Second Macedonian War: Roman victory.
  • 197 BCE
    Romans are victorious over Philip V of Macedon at Cynoscephalae.
  • 172 BCE - 168 BCE
    Third Macedonian War: Perseus of Macedon challenges Rome and is defeated.
  • Jun 168 BCE
    Romans defeat Perseus of Macedon at Pydna.
  • 150 BCE
    Macedonia becomes a Roman province.
  • 148 BCE
    Thessalonica is made the captial of the Roman province of Macedon.
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