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Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, constructed 532-537 CE, continues to be revered as one of the most important structures in the world. Hagia Sophia (Greek Ἁγία Σοφία, for ‘Holy Wisdom') was designed to be the major basilica of the Byzantine Empire and held the record for the largest dome in the world until... [continue reading
Aztec society was hierarchical and divided into clearly defined classes. The nobility dominated the key positions in the military, state administration, judiciary, and priesthood. While traders could become extremely wealthy and powerful, even their prosperity was based on their class, and most citizens remained simple farmers. There was a limited opportunity... [continue reading
The original and traditional source of historical knowledge is the written text. However, the concept of what a historical source is has undergone transformation and redefinition over the centuries. This has happened as new mediums of communication, record keeping, and non-textual data in the form of material remains have emerged. New disciplines... [continue reading
The Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus is regarded one of the most famous monuments of the ancient city of Ephesus. It lies on the south side of Curates Street, one of Ephesus main arteries connecting the Gate of Hercules with the Library of Celsus. The remains of the Temple were unearthed in 1956 during excavations carried out by the Austrian Archaeological... [continue reading
The Pentecontaetia (Pentekontætia, πεντηκονταετία) or “the account of the fifty years” is a term first used by Thucydides to describe, in Book 1, Sections 89 to 117 (1.89-117) of his History of the Peloponnesian War, the period between the Battle of Plataea in... [continue reading
Tel Kabri is an archaeological site in northwestern Israel that is best known as the location of one of the largest palaces in Canaan in the Middle Bronze Age or "MB" (ca. 2,000–1,500 BCE). Although Tel Kabri reached the height of its power in the MB, it was inhabited during various periods both before and after the MB, from the Pottery... [continue reading
The Ancient Greek symposium is often considered an important part of Greek culture, a place where the elite drank, feasted and indulged in sometimes decadent activities. Although such practices were present in symposia, the writing and performance of poetry is perhaps the most interesting and thought-provoking element of the ancient sympotic tradition... [continue reading
The Thirty Tyrants (οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι) is a term first used by Polycrates in a speech praising Thrasybulus (Arist. Rhet. 1401a) to describe the brief 8-month oligarchy which governed Athens after the Peloponnesian War – roughly late-summer 404 BCE to early-summer... [continue reading
I want to tell you about Mainz, Germany. Not just Mainz, but the secret Roman history of Mainz. Like most cities Ive traveled to in Europe, Mainz has many well-hidden secrets. Although Mainz has a lot to offer for a day-trip, I wouldnt consider it a touristy area. Most people go to see the Cathedral or the first Gutenberg Bible at the Gutenberg Museum... [continue reading
I fondly remember the first release of Medieval 2: Total War with its grand campaign leading the iron-fisted Holy Roman Empire, crushing the fortified Italian Nation-states of Milan and Venice whilst keeping the might of France, Denmark and Poland at bay. Few games have come close in scale and excitement to witnessing an army of Imperial Knights charging... [continue reading