Ancient Rome


published on 02 September 2009
Temple of Saturn, Rome (Leo-seta)

According to legend, Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demi-gods, Romulus and Remus, on 21 April 753 BCE. The legend claims that, in an argument over who would rule the city (or, in another version, where the city would be located) Romulus killed Remus and named the city after himself. This story of the founding of Rome is the best known but it is not the only one.

Other legends claim the city was named after a woman, Roma, who traveled with Aeneas and the other survivors from Troy after that city fell. Upon landing on the banks of the Tiber River, Roma and the other women objected when the men wanted to move on. She led the women in the burning of the Trojan ships and so effectively stranded the Trojan survivors at the site which would eventually become Rome. Aeneas of Troy is featured in this legend and also, famously, in Virgil's Aeneid, as a founder of Rome and the ancestor of Romulus and Remus, thus linking Rome with the grandeur and might which was once Troy.

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Still other theories concerning the name of the famous city suggest it came from Rumon, the ancient name for the Tiber River, and was simply a place-name given to the small trading centre established on its banks or that the name derived from an Etruscan word which could have designated one of their settlements. 

Early Rome

Originally a small town on the banks of the Tiber, Rome grew in size and strength, early on, through trade. The location of the city provided merchants with an easily navigable waterway on which to traffic their goods. The city was ruled by seven kings, from Romulus to Tarquin, as it grew in size and power. Greek culture and civilization, which came to Rome via Greek colonies to the south, provided the early Romans with a model on which to build their own culture. From the Greeks they borrowed literacy and religion as well as the fundamentals of architecture.

The Etruscans, to the north, provided a model for trade and urban luxury. Etruria was also well situated for trade and the early Romans either learned the skills of trade from Etruscan example or were taught directly by the Etruscans who made incursions into the area around Rome sometime between 650 and 600 BCE (although their influence was felt much earlier). The extent of the role the Etruscans played in the development of Roman culture and society is debated but there seems little doubt they had a significant impact at an early stage.  

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From the start, the Romans showed a talent for borrowing and improving upon the skills and concepts of other cultures. The Kingdom of Rome grew rapidly from a trading town to a prosperous city between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE. When the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed in 509 BCE, his rival for power, Lucius Junius Brutus, reformed the system of government and established the Roman Republic.

it was war which would make Rome a powerful force in the ancient world.

War & Expansion

Though Rome owed its prosperity to trade in the early years, it was war which would make the city a powerful force in the ancient world. The wars with the North African city of Carthage (known as the Punic Wars, 264-146 BCE) consolidated Rome's power and helped the city grow in wealth and prestige. Rome and Carthage were rivals in trade in the Western Mediterranean and, with Carthage defeated, Rome held almost absolute dominance over the region; though there were still incursions by pirates which prevented complete Roman control of the sea.

As the Republic of Rome grew in power and prestige, the city of Rome began to suffer from the effects of corruption, greed and the over-reliance on foreign slave labor. Gangs of unemployed Romans, put out of work by the influx of slaves brought in through territorial conquests, hired themselves out as thugs to do the bidding of whatever wealthy Senator would pay them. The wealthy elite of the city, the Patricians, became ever richer at the expense of the working lower class, the Plebeians.

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In the 2nd century BCE, the Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, two Roman tribunes, led a movement for land reform and political reform in general. Though the brothers were both killed in this cause, their efforts did spur legislative reforms and the rampant corruption of the Senate was curtailed (or, at least, the Senators became more discreet in their corrupt activities). By the time of the First Triumvirate, both the city and the Republic of Rome were in full flourish.

The Lost Gods: The Romans (Planet Knowledge)


The Republic

Even so, Rome found itself divided across class lines. The ruling class called themselves Optimates (the best men) while the lower classes, or those who sympathized with them, were known as the Populares (the people). These names were applied simply to those who held a certain political ideology; they were not strict political parties nor were all of the ruling class Optimates nor all of the lower classes Populares.

In general, the Optimates held with traditional political and social values which favored the power of the Senate of Rome and the prestige and superiority of the ruling class. The Populares, again generally speaking, favored reform and democratization of the Roman Republic. These opposing ideologies would famously clash in the form of three men who would, unwittingly, bring about the end of the Roman Republic.

Marcus Licinius Crassus and his political rival, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) joined with another, younger, politician, Gaius Julius Caesar, to form what modern historians call the First Triumvirate of Rome (though the Romans of the time never used that term, nor did the three men who comprised the triumvirate). Crassus and Pompey both held the Optimate political line while Caesar was a Populare.

The three men were equally ambitious and, vying for power, were able to keep each other in check while helping to make Rome prosper. Crassus was the richest man in Rome and was corrupt to the point of forcing wealthy citizens to pay him `safety' money. If the citizen paid, Crassus would not burn down that person's house but, if no money was forthcoming, the fire would be lighted and Crassus would then charge a fee to send men to put the fire out. Although the motive behind the origin of these fire brigades was far from noble, Crassus did effectively create the first fire department which would, later, prove of great value to the city.

Both Pompey and Caesar were great generals who, through their respective conquests, made Rome wealthy. Though the richest man in Rome (and, it has been argued, the richest in all of Roman history) Crassus longed for the same respect people accorded Pompey and Caesar for their military successes. In 53 BCE he lead a sizeable force against the Parthians at Carrhae, in modern day Turkey, where he was killed when truce negotiations broke down.

With Crassus gone, the First Triumvirate disintegrated and Pompey and Caesar declared war on each other. Pompey tried to eliminate his rival through legal means and had the Senate order Caesar to Rome to stand trial on assorted charges. Instead of returning to the city in humility to face these charges, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River with his army in 49 BCE and entered Rome at the head of it.

He refused to answer the charges and directed his focus toward eliminating Pompey as a rival.  Pompey and Caesar met in battle at Pharsalus in Greece in 48 BCE where Caesar's numerically inferior force defeated Pompey's greater one. Pompey himself fled to Egypt, expecting to find sanctuary there, but was assassinated upon his arrival. News of Caesar's great victory against overwhelming numbers at Pharsalus had spread quickly and many former friends and allies of Pompey swiftly sided with Caesar, believing he was favored by the gods.

Bronze Head of Augustus

Towards Empire

Julius Caesar was now the most powerful man in Rome. He effectively ended the period of the Republic by having the Senate proclaim him dictator. His popularity among the people was enormous and his efforts to create a strong and stable central government meant increased prosperity for the city of Rome. He was assassinated by a group of Roman Senators in 44 BCE, however, precisely because of these achievements.

The conspirators, Brutus and Cassius among them, seemed to fear that Caesar was becoming too powerful and that he might eventually abolish the Senate. Following his death, his right-hand man, and cousin, Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) joined forces with Caesar's nephew and heir, Gaius Octavius Thurinus (Octavian) and Caesar's friend, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, to defeat the forces of Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Phillippi in 42 BCE.

Octavian, Antony and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate of Rome but, as with the first, these men were also equally ambitious. Lepidus was effectively neutralized when Antony and Octavian agreed that he should have Hispania and Africa to rule over and thereby kept him from any power play in Rome. It was agreed that Octavian would rule Roman lands in the west and Antony in the east.

Antony's involvement with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII, however, upset the balance Octavian had hoped to maintain and the two went to war. Antony and Cleopatra's combined forces were defeated at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE and both later took their own lives. Octavian emerged as the sole power in Rome. In 27 BCE he was granted extraordinary powers by the Senate and took the name of Augustus, the first Emperor of Rome.  Historians are in agreement that this is the point at which the history of Rome ends and the history of the Roman Empire begins.


About the Author

Joshua J. Mark
A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level.

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Cite This Work

APA Style

Mark, J. J. (2009, September 02). Ancient Rome. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Chicago Style

Mark, Joshua J. "Ancient Rome." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified September 02, 2009.

MLA Style

Mark, Joshua J. "Ancient Rome." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep 2009. Web. 18 Mar 2018.

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Visual Timeline
  • 753 BCE
    The legendary founding date of Rome.
  • 753 BCE - 510 BCE
    Regal Period of ancient Rome from Founding to Birth of the Republic.
  • 750 BCE - 510 BCE
    The (semi-mythological) seven kings of Rome: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
  • c. 620 BCE
    Posible founding date for Ostia, the port of Rome.
  • 599 BCE - 500 BCE
    The traditional date when the Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out.
  • 534 BCE - 510 BCE
    Reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome.
  • 510 BCE - 509 BCE
    First treaty between Rome and Carthage.
  • 509 BCE
    Foundation of the Roman Republic.
  • c. 508 BCE
    Lars Porsenna, Etruscan king of Chiusi, lays siege to Rome.
  • 504 BCE
    Migration of Claudii from Sabine lands to Rome.
  • c. 499 BCE
    Battle of Lake Regillus between Rome and the Latin League.
  • c. 497 BCE
    The first temple dedicated to Saturn is constructed in the Roman Forum of Rome.
  • 495 BCE
    Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, dies in exile at Cumae.
  • 494 BCE
    Traditional date the office of the tribuni plebis is created in Rome.
  • 493 BCE
    Foedus Cassianus - treaty by Spurius Cassius Vecellinus with the Latin League after the Battle of Lake Regillus.
  • 484 BCE
    The first temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux) is dedicated in Rome by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
  • 451 BCE - 450 BCE
    Decemvirate and Publication of Twelve Tables of Roman Law.
  • c. 400 BCE
    Roman tale of mythical twins Romulus and Remus first recorded.
  • 394 BCE
    Etruscan Volsinii and their ally Sappinum unsuccessfully attacks Rome.
  • 390 BCE
    Gauls sack Rome.
  • 387 BCE
    "Gallic Catastrophe:" Duke Brennus of the Celts defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome. Celts move off after ransom is paid.
  • 380 BCE
    Rebuilding of Rome. Strong walls around the seven hills.
  • 343 BCE - 341 BCE
    First Samnite War (Rome vs. Samnites).
  • 340 BCE - 338 BCE
    Latin War, victory for Rome.
  • 326 BCE - 304 BCE
    Second Samnite War.
  • 321 BCE
    The Via Appia, a famous Roman road, is constructed.
  • 298 BCE - 290 BCE
    Third Samnite War between Rome and the Samnite people.
  • 295 BCE
    Roman victory over Samnites, Gauls and Umbrians at Sentinum.
  • 292 BCE
    The Romans adopt the Greek god of medicine Asclepius by stealing his sacred snake from Epidaurus and setting up a temple on the Tiber Island.
  • Mar 218 BCE
    Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal sacks Saguntum in Spain. The Second Punic War begins.
  • 213 BCE - 212 BCE
    Roman commander Marcus Claudius Marcellus lays seige to and ultimately sacks Syracuse.
  • 196 BCE
    The earliest known Triumphal Arches are built in Rome by L.Sertinius.
  • 168 BCE
    Rome defeats Macedon at Battle of Pydna.
  • 166 BCE
    Rome puts Delos under the jurisdiction of Athens and makes the island a free port.
  • 146 BCE
    First Roman all-marble building is constructed, the temple of Jupiter Stater in Rome.
  • 121 BCE
    Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province.
  • 107 BCE - 100 BCE
    Gaius Marius reforms the Roman army.
  • 12 Jul 100 BCE - 15 Mar 44 BCE
    Life of Gaius Julius Caesar, founder of the Roman Empire.
  • 89 BCE
    All poleis or city-states in Magna Graecia come under Roman control.
  • 80 BCE
    Sulla moves the Olympic Games to Rome for a single Olympiad.
  • 70 BCE
    Pompey and Crassus are made consuls.
  • 59 BCE - 17 CE
    Life of Livy.
  • 58 BCE - 51 BCE
  • 55 BCE
    Pompey the Great builds the first permanent stone theatre in Rome.
  • 55 BCE - 54 BCE
    Julius Caesar's expeditions in Britain.
  • 54 BCE - 29 BCE
    Forum of Caesar constructed in Rome by Julius Caesar as another area to conduct judicial business. It is the best surviving of his monuments.
  • 44 BCE
    Julius Caesar is murdered.
  • 43 BCE - 36 BCE
    Second Roman Triumvirate: Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (official approvement by Senate). Mass proscriptions including Cicero.
  • 43 BCE - 17 CE
    Life of Ovid.
  • 36 BCE
    Agrippa defeats the naval fleet of Sextus Pompey in the battle of Naulochos.
  • 31 BCE
    Greece absorbed into Roman Empire.
  • c. 27 BCE
    The first Pantheon is built in Rome and dedicated by Marcus Agrippa.
  • c. 20 BCE
    The Campus Martius baths in Rome are constructed and donated to the people by Agrippa.
  • c. 20 BCE
    Military engineer and architect Vitruvius publishes his "De Architectura".
  • 19 BCE
    Arch of Augustus built in Rome to commemorate victory over the Parthians.
  • c. 13 BCE
    Official inauguration of the Theatre of Marcellus in Rome.
  • 1 CE - 100 CE
    Mithraism spreads in the Roman empire.
  • c. 13 CE
    Augustus creates the cohortes urbanae in Rome to help maintain public order.
  • c. 23 CE
    The castra praetoria, permanent camp of the Praetorian Guard, is built in Rome by Sejanus.
  • 42 CE - 62 CE
    St. Paul goes on missionary journeys across Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome.
  • c. 50 CE - c. 60 CE
    Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
  • 60 CE - 61 CE
    Boudicca's Revolt in Britain.
  • 64 CE
    Unofficial persecution of Christians in Rome.
  • 64 CE
    The great fire in Rome.
  • c. 64 CE
    The Roman port of Ostia reaches its maximum size becoming a major urban centre.
  • 64 CE
    Fire destroys the Circus Maximus in Rome.
  • c. 65 CE
    The Baths of Nero are built in Rome.
  • c. 65 CE
    The Circus Maximus in Rome is rebuilt and its capacity increased to 250,000.
  • 66 CE - 73 CE
    The Jewish Revolt against Rome.
  • 68 CE - 69 CE
    Year of the Four Emperors: Civil war in Rome.
  • 70 CE
    The city of Jerusalem is besieged and captured by Rome; the Second Temple destroyed.
  • Jun 71 CE
    Titus returns to Rome from Jewish War.
  • 72 CE
    Vespasian begins construction of the Colosseum in Rome.
  • 24 Jan 76 CE - 10 Jul 138 CE
    Life of Roman emperor Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus).
  • 79 CE
    Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash.
  • 80 CE
    The Colosseum in Rome is officially opened by Titus with a 100 day gladiator spectacular.
  • 80 CE
    The first Pantheon in Rome is destroyed by fire.
  • 81 CE - 96 CE
    Construction is finally completed on the Colosseum of Rome in the reign of Domitian.
  • 83 CE
    Battle of Mons Graupius in Scotland.
  • 18 Sep 96 CE
    Death of Roman Emperor Domitian.
  • c. 110 CE
    First documented martydom in the Colosseum of Rome, that of St. Ignatius of Antioch.
  • 110 CE
    The second Pantheon building in Rome is hit by lightning and destroyed by fire.
  • 113 CE
    Trajan’s column is constructed in Rome which commemorates the emperor's campaigns in Dacia.
  • c. 125 CE
    The Pantheon is completed in Rome.
  • 10 Jul 138 CE - 9 Mar 161 CE
  • c. 180 CE
    The Column of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina is erected in Rome. It depicts in relief sculpture the emperors' campaigns across the Danube.
  • 192 CE
    Emperor Commodus is murdered, civil war ensues (until 197 CE).
  • 202 CE
    The Pantheon in Rome is repaired by Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
  • 227 CE
    The Baths of Nero in Rome are extensively renovated and expanded by Alexander Severus and renamed Thermae Alexandrinae.
  • c. 235 CE
    The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are completed.
  • 272 CE
    Possible year of Emperor Constantine's birth.
  • 286 CE
    Naval commander Carausius (Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius) declares himself emperor in Britain and Northern Gaul.
  • 293 CE
    Emperor Carausius assassinated by Allectus.
  • 308 CE
    Constantine I named "caesar" of the west.
  • 312 CE
    Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.
  • 312 CE
    Constantine I reduces the cohortes urbanae of Rome.
  • 337 CE
    Death of Emperor Constantine I.
  • 402 CE
    Ravenna becomes the capital of the Western Roman empire.
  • 408 CE
    Alaric I the Visigoth besieges Rome. As ransom, Rome pays 5,000 pounds of gold, 30,000 pounds of silver, 4,000 silken tunics, 3,000 hides dyed scarlet, and 3,000 pounds of pepper.
  • 410 CE
    Alaric of the Visigoths sacks Rome.
  • 24 Aug 410 CE
    Alaric sacks Rome.
  • 422 CE
    The Colosseum of Rome is damaged by earthquake.
  • 455 CE
    Vandals sack Rome.
  • 536 CE
    Rome falls to Belisarius.
  • 549 CE
    The last official chariot race is held in Rome's Circus Maximus.
  • 608 CE
    The Pantheon in Rome is converted into a Christian church.
  • c. 730 CE
    First reference to the Flavian Amphitheatre as the Colosseum by the Venerable Bede.
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