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Julius Caesar
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both held to the...
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Definition by Livius

Sextus Julius Caesar

Sextus Julius Caesar (died 90 or 89 BCE) was Roman politician in the first quarter of the first century BCE. In our sources, he is sometimes called Lucius. The end of the second century BCE witnessed the rise of new families in Roman...
The Murder of Julius Caesar
Article by Donald L. Wasson

The Murder of Julius Caesar

Veni, vidi, vici! This was the simple message the Roman commander Julius Caesar sent to the Senate in Rome after a resounding victory in the east against King Pharnaces of Pontus - a message that demonstrated both arrogance as well as...
Julius Caesar: The Faults Behind the Myth
Article by Marc Hyden

Julius Caesar: The Faults Behind the Myth

Last March marked the anniversary of Julius Caesar’s assassination over 2,000 years ago, and after two millennia, his legendary achievements still linger in today’s consciousness just as they have for centuries. He was so revered...
Augustus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Augustus

Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. Octavian was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE...
Caesarion
Definition by Arienne King

Caesarion

Ptolemy XV Caesar “Theos Philopator Philometor” (“the Father-loving Mother-loving God”) (c. 47-30 BCE), better known by his unofficial nickname Caesarion or “Little Caesar” in Greek, was the oldest...
Cleopatra VII
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE, r. 51-30 BCE) was the last ruler of Egypt before it was annexed as a province of Rome. Although arguably the most famous Egyptian queen, Cleopatra was actually Greek and a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty...
First Triumvirate
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate of ancient Rome was an uneasy alliance between the three titans Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus which, from 60 BCE until 53 BCE, dominated the politics of the Roman Republic. Alliances have always been a part of history...
Roman Emperor
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Emperor

Roman emperors ruled over the Imperial Roman Empire starting with Augustus from 27 BCE and continuing in the Western Roman Empire until the late 5th century CE and in the Eastern Roman Empire up to the mid-15th century CE. The emperors would...
Roman Gaul
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Gaul

Roman Gaul is an umbrella term for several Roman provinces in western Europe: Cisalpine Gaul or Gallia Cisalpina, comprised a territory situated in the northernmost part of the Italian peninsula ranging from the Apennines in the west northward...