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Pirates in the Ancient Mediterranean
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Pirates in the Ancient Mediterranean

Piracy, defined as the act of attacking and robbing a ship or port by sea, had a long history in the ancient Mediterranean stretching from the time of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten (r. 1353-1336 BCE) and throughout the Middle Ages (c. 476-1500...
Pirates of the Mediterranean
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Pirates of the Mediterranean

The pirates of the ancient Mediterranean were not, for the most part, the outsiders who knew no country’s allegiance and were the enemies of civilization as they are frequently depicted in novels and other media. They were often employed...
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Article by Constanze Güthenke, Princeton University

Watching the Great Sea of Beauty: Thinking the Ancient Greek Mediterranean

This is a contribution to be published in a volume entitled Mediterranean Studies, edited by Roberto Dainotto and Eric Zakim for the Modern Language Association (MLA), as part of a new MLA series on Transnational Literatures. The editors...
Mycenaean Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Mycenaean Civilization

The Mycenaean civilization (c. 1700-1100 BCE) flourished in the Late Bronze Age, reaching its peak from the 15th to the 13th century BCE when it extended its influence not only throughout the Peloponnese in Greece but also across the Aegean...
Minoan Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Minoan Civilization

The Minoan civilization flourished in the Middle Bronze Age on the island of Crete located in the eastern Mediterranean from c. 2000 BCE until c. 1500 BCE. With their unique art and architecture, and the spread of their...
Greek Colonization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Greek Colonization

In the first half of the first millennium BCE, ancient Greek city-states, most of which were maritime powers, began to look beyond Greece for land and resources, and so they founded colonies across the Mediterranean. Trade contacts were usually...
Alexandria, Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria is a port city located on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It is most famous in antiquity as the site of the Pharos, the great lighthouse, considered one of the seven wonders of...
Side
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Side

Side (pronounced see-day) was a city on the southern coast of Cilicia (modern-day Turkey) first settled in the 7th century BCE by immigrants from Cyme, an Aeolian municipality to the north near the kingdom of Lydia. Its name means 'pomegranate'...
Roman Naval Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Naval Warfare

Military supremacy of the seas could be a crucial factor in the success of any land campaign, and the Romans well knew that a powerful naval fleet could supply troops and equipment to where they were most needed in as short a time as possible...
Cilicia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cilicia

Cilicia is the ancient Roman name for the southeastern region of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It is referenced in the biblical books of Acts and Galatians, was the birthplace of Saint Paul, and the site of his early evangelical missions...