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Fresco of Panis Quadratus, or Panis Siligineus

Dinner with the Romans: An Interview with Farrell Monaco

The ancient Romans left behind a wealth of remains which help archaeologists and historians to understand what daily life was like in the Roman Empire...
Aristotle Bust by Lisippo


Aristotle of Stagira (l. 384-322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher who pioneered systematic, scientific examination in literally every area...
The Armies of Trebizond

Empire of Trebizond

The Empire of Trebizond was an offshoot of the Byzantine Empire that existed from 1204 to 1461 CE, ruled by the Megas Komnenos Dynasty, descendants...
Elephant & Griffon

Elephants in Hellenistic History & Art

Elephants were thought of as fierce and frightful monsters in antiquity, very real though rarely seen until the Hellenistic period. They were deployed...
Medieval Drawing of a Cat in a Tree

Cats in the Middle Ages

The life of a cat in the Middle Ages (c. 476-1500 CE) differed significantly from that of a dog owing primarily to its association with witchcraft...
Caesar in Gaul

Ancient Roman Warfare

With a huge reserve of resources in men and equipment and a culture geared for warfare, the Romans were relentless in expanding their borders and putting...
Chester City

Chester: A Time-Travelling City

It is said that Chester is the richest city in Britain in terms of archaeological and architectural treasures. One of the finest strategic outposts...
Saladin's Army, from the Histoire d'Outremerby

Saladin & the Unification of the Muslim Front: 1169-1187 CE

Saladin (c. 1137 – 1193 CE), the Muslim ruler who crushed the mighty Crusader army at the Horns of Hattin (1187 CE) and re-took Jerusalem after...


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