Brundisium (modern Brindisi), located on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy, was a Messapian and then Roman town of great strategic importance throughout...
Headdress of Motecuhzoma II
The headdress of Motecuhzoma II, Aztec ruler 1502-1520 CE. Although there is no evidence that it was ever worn by Motecuhzoma the headdress may have...
Pirates of the Mediterranean
The pirates of the ancient Mediterranean were not, for the most part, the outsiders who knew no country’s allegiance and were the enemies of civilization...
Ninnia-ji is a Shingon Buddhist temple complex located in Kyoto, Japan. Known as the ‘Temple of Heavenly Benevolence’, it was founded in...
The Gurjara-Pratiharas, or simply, the Pratiharas (8th century CE - 11th century CE) held their sway over western and northern India. This dynasty saw...
Book of the Heavenly Cow
The Book of the Heavenly Cow is an ancient Egyptian text dealing with the rebellion of humanity against the sun god Ra, his destruction of the rebels...
Warfare in Ancient China
Chinese warfare involved perhaps the largest and most technologically advanced armies in the ancient world. Chariots, cavalry, swords, bows and crossbows...
The Megalithic Funerary Art of San Agustín
Beginning approximately 2000 years ago, in a rugged stretch of southwestern Colombia where the Andes split into multiple ranges and the mighty Magdalena...
Immortality of Writers in Ancient Egypt
For the ancient Egyptians, life on earth was only one part of an eternal journey which continued after death. One’s purpose in life was to live...
Trade in the Middle Ages
Peoples, cities and states have traded since antiquity but in the medieval period, things escalated so that goods travelled ever greater distances by...
Martial Arts in Medieval Japan
There were 18 martial arts (bugei or bujutsu) in medieval Japan, and these included use of weapons, unarmed self-defence techniques, swimming, and equestrian...
Field of Reeds (Aaru)
A’Aru (The Field of Reeds) was the Egyptian afterlife, an idealized vision of one’s life on earth (also known as Sekhet-A’Aru and...
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