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Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Article

Sulla's Reforms as Dictator

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (l. 138 - 78 BCE) enacted his constitutional reforms (81 BCE) as dictator to strengthen the Roman Senate’s power. Sulla...
King Stephen of England, York Minster
Definition

King Stephen of England

King Stephen of England, often called Stephen of Blois, ruled from 1135 to 1154 CE. His predecessor Henry I of England (r. 1100-1135 CE) had left no...
Persian Silver Plaque Depicting Hunting Dogs
Article

Dogs in Ancient Persia

Dogs have been an integral aspect of the human condition in virtually every world culture for thousands of years. Some of the greatest civilizations...
Bimbisara & the Bodhisattva
Definition

Bimbisara

Bimbisara (c. 545/544 BCE - c. 493/492 BCE) was a king of the Magadha Kingdom who is credited with establishing imperial dominance...
Henry I of England Illustration
Definition

Henry I of England

Henry I reigned as the king of England from 1100 to 1135 CE. The son of William the Conqueror (r. 1066-1087 CE), Henry succeeded his brother William...
Tombstone of Caliph Umar
Definition

Islamic Caliphates

Caliphate (“Khilafat” in Arabic) was a semi-religious political system of governance in Islam, in which the territories of the Islamic empire...
Windsor Castle, Upper Ward
Definition

Windsor Castle

Windsor Castle, located in Berkshire, England, was first built as a motte and bailey castle by William the Conqueror (r. 1066-1087 CE). The castle was...
A View of the Al-Masjid An-Nabwi
Definition

Prophet Muhammad

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (l. 570-610 CE) is venerated today as the Prophet of Islam and the “seal of Prophets” by his followers – the...
Relief of King Ashurnasirpal II
Article

Truths Wrapped in Fiction: Mesopotamian Naru Literature

Originality in literary compositions in the ancient world did not carry the same weight and value as it does in the present day. In recent centuries...
William II of England
Definition

William II of England

William II of England, sometimes called William ‘Rufus’ for his red hair and complexion, reigned as the king of England from 1087 to 1100...

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