Trade in the Byzantine Empire
Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and expansion of the Byzantine Empire. Trade was carried out by ship over vast distances...
The Bent Pyramid at Dahshur, built by Sneferu (4th Dynasty), rises at a 55-dgree angle and then shifts to 43 degrees of smaller stones giving it the...
William the Conqueror & the Ely Rebellion
By early 1070 CE William I (r. 1066-1087 CE) had almost completed the Norman conquest of England. There remained threats from the border regions with...
Visiting the Ancient City of Babylon
We had a 4-day national holiday. Meaning what? No clinic and no hospital! I said to myself, “It’s been a long time since I have visited...
William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North
By the end of 1066 CE William the Conqueror had won a decisive victory at the Battle of Hastings, subdued the south-east of England and been crowned...
Norse Pets in the Viking Age
Pets were as important to the Norse of the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) as they were to any other culture, past or present. The Vikings kept dogs and...
The Vikings in Iceland
The medieval sources on the discovery and settlement of Iceland frequently refer to the explorers as “Vikings” but, technically, they were...
The Kachina (also “Katsina”) cult refers to the specific religious practices centered on the kachina, which is a spiritual entity and divine...
William the Conqueror's March on London
William the Conqueror (r. 1066-1087 CE) was victorious at the Battle of Hastings in October 1066 CE, and Harold Godwinson, King Harold II of England...
In many depictions of Vikings, whether in film or other media, a group is often seen gathered around a flaming pit while an animal of some type &ndash...