Sparta Timeline

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  • c. 900 BCE
    Sparta is founded.
  • 720 BCE
    The dolichos foot-race is added to the schedule of the Olympic Games and is won by Akanthos of Sparta.
  • 706 BCE
    Sparta founds the colony of Tarentum in Magna Graecia.
  • c. 700 BCE
    Sparta, Argos and Paros hold the first documented musical competitions in Greece.
  • c. 650 BCE
    Sparta crushes Messenian revolt.
  • 525 BCE
    Sparta and Corinth unsuccessfully attack Polycrates of Samos.
  • c. 505 BCE - 365 BCE
    Peloponnesian League alliance between Sparta, Corinth, Elis and Tegea which establishes Spartan hegemony over the Peloponnese.
  • 494 BCE - 493 BCE
    Telesilla of Argos defends her city against the Spartan forces with an army of women.
  • 494 BCE - 493 BCE
    Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the city of Argos.
  • c. 490 BCE
    Leonidas beomes one of Sparta's two kings.
  • Aug 480 BCE
    Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
  • 480 BCE
    Death of King Leonidas of Sparta at the Battle of Thermopylae.
  • 479 BCE
    Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
  • 478 BCE
    Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
  • 464 BCE - 463 BCE
    Earthquake in Sparta, followed by slave revolt. Surrender of Thasos.
  • 460 BCE - 445 BCE
    First Peloponnesian War.
  • 457 BCE
    Sparta wins the battle of Tanagra during the 1st Peloponnesian War with Athens.
  • 451 BCE - 450 BCE
    Peace between Argos and Sparta. Athens and Sparta conclude five-year truce.
  • 451 BCE
    Thirty years peace between Argos and Sparta.
  • 446 BCE - 445 BCE
    Spartans invade Attica. Thirty Years’ Peace between Athens and Sparta.
  • 432 BCE
    Sparta declares that Athens has broken the Thirty Year Peace and prepares for war.
  • 431 BCE - 404 BCE
    The Cycladic city states side with Athens in the Peloponnesian war against Sparta and her allies.
  • 431 BCE - 404 BCE
    The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
  • 431 BCE - 404 BCE
    Thebes sides with Sparta against Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
  • 430 BCE - c. 354 BCE
    Life of Xenophon of Athens.
  • 429 BCE
    Peloponnesian forces led by Sparta begin the siege of Plataea.
  • 429 BCE
    Following attacks by Sparta, fortifications at the port of Piraeus are extended to reduce the width of the harbour entrances.
  • 427 BCE
    Plataea finally falls to the Spartans after a two year siege.
  • 425 BCE
    Pylos campaign, under Cleon and Demosthenes' command Athens defeats Sparta at Pylos.
  • 424 BCE
    Spartan general Brasidas takes Amphipolis, Thucydides failed to prevent this and is exiled.
  • 424 BCE - 420 BCE
    The Nike of Paionios is erected at Olympia to commemorate the Messenian and Naupaktian victory over Sparta at the battle of Sphakteria.
  • 424 BCE
    A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the Peloponnese.
  • 424 BCE
    Spartan Brasidas' campaign in Thrace.
  • 422 BCE
    Spartan general Brasidas dies of his wounds at Amphipolis.
  • 422 BCE
    Spartan general Brasidas employs Myrkinian and Chalkidian peltasts to defeat a force of Athenian hoplites at Amphipolis.
  • 421 BCE
    Spartan soldiers return from campaigning Thrace, some as Neodamodeis.
  • 420 BCE
    Sparta is excluded from the Olympic Games for breaking the ekecheiria or sacred truce.
  • 418 BCE
    Sparta, led by Agis II, defeats Argos and her allies at the battle of Mantinaea.
  • 417 BCE - 415 BCE
    Melos, after supporting Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, is attacked by Athens.
  • 413 BCE
    On the advice of Alcibiades the Spartans take over the Athenian-held fort of Dekeleia.
  • c. 412 BCE
    Rhodes revolts against Athens and supports Sparta in the Peloponnesian War.
  • 412 BCE
    Sparta allies with Persia.
  • 410 BCE
    Alcibiades leads the Athenian fleet to victory over Sparta at Cyzicus.
  • 406 BCE
    The Athenian fleet is defeated by Lysander of Sparta at Notium.
  • 404 BCE
    Sparta attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus destroying parts of the Long Wall fortifications.
  • 404 BCE
    End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
  • c. 398 BCE
    Xenophon works as mercenary for Sparta.
  • 396 BCE
    Spartan Agesilaus II's campaign into Ionia.
  • 395 BCE - 386 BCE
    The Corinthian Wars between Sparta and an alliance of Athens, Corinth, Argos, Boeotia and Thebes.
  • 390 BCE
    Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near Corinth.
  • 387 BCE
    Sparta attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus.
  • 379 BCE - 376 BCE
    Sparta establishes a garrison at Thebes.
  • 377 BCE - 355 BCE
    The Cycladic city states join Athens in the Second Athenian League against Sparta .
  • 375 BCE
    Thebes defeats Sparta at the Battle of Tegyra.
  • 371 BCE
    Thebes defeats Sparta in the Battle of Leuktra.
  • 367 BCE
    Celtic mercenaries fight with the Spartans against Thebes.
  • 362 BCE
    Indecisive Battle of Matinea where Thebes fought against Sparta and Athens. Theban general Epaminondas is killed.
  • 219 BCE
    The physician Archagathus of Sparta arrives in Rome.
  • 267 CE
    The Goths sack Athens, Corinth, Sparta, and Argos.
  • 396 CE
    Sparta is sacked by the Visigoths led by Alaric.

Visual Timeline

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Legend:

900 BCE 800 BCE 700 BCE 600 BCE 500 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE 200 BCE 100 BCE 0 CE 100 CE 200 CE 300 CE  
 
 
900 BCE: Sparta is founded.
 
720 BCE: The dolichos foot-race is added to the schedule of the Olympic Games and is won by Akanthos of Sparta.
 
706 BCE: Sparta founds the colony of Tarentum in Magna Graecia.
 
 
700 BCE: Sparta, Argos and Paros hold the first documented musical competitions in Greece.
 
650 BCE: Sparta crushes Messenian revolt.
 
 
525 BCE: Sparta and Corinth unsuccessfully attack Polycrates of Samos.
 
 
505 BCE - 365 BCE: Peloponnesian League alliance between Sparta, Corinth, Elis and Tegea which establishes Spartan hegemony over the Peloponnese.
 
 
494 BCE - 493 BCE: Telesilla of Argos defends her city against the Spartan forces with an army of women.
 
 
494 BCE - 493 BCE: Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the city of Argos.
 
490 BCE: Leonidas beomes one of Sparta's two kings.
 
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
 
480 BCE: Death of King Leonidas of Sparta at the Battle of Thermopylae.
 
 
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
 
478 BCE: Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
 
 
464 BCE - 463 BCE: Earthquake in Sparta, followed by slave revolt. Surrender of Thasos.
 
460 BCE - 445 BCE: First Peloponnesian War.
 
 
457 BCE: Sparta wins the battle of Tanagra during the 1st Peloponnesian War with Athens.
 
451 BCE - 450 BCE: Peace between Argos and Sparta. Athens and Sparta conclude five-year truce.
 
451 BCE: Thirty years peace between Argos and Sparta.
 
 
446 BCE - 445 BCE: Spartans invade Attica. Thirty Years’ Peace between Athens and Sparta.
 
 
432 BCE: Sparta declares that Athens has broken the Thirty Year Peace and prepares for war.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The Cycladic city states side with Athens in the Peloponnesian war against Sparta and her allies.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: Thebes sides with Sparta against Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
 
 
430 BCE - 354 BCE: Life of Xenophon of Athens.
 
 
429 BCE: Peloponnesian forces led by Sparta begin the siege of Plataea.
 
429 BCE: Following attacks by Sparta, fortifications at the port of Piraeus are extended to reduce the width of the harbour entrances.
 
 
427 BCE: Plataea finally falls to the Spartans after a two year siege.
 
425 BCE: Pylos campaign, under Cleon and Demosthenes' command Athens defeats Sparta at Pylos.
 
 
424 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas takes Amphipolis, Thucydides failed to prevent this and is exiled.
 
 
424 BCE - 420 BCE: The Nike of Paionios is erected at Olympia to commemorate the Messenian and Naupaktian victory over Sparta at the battle of Sphakteria.
 
424 BCE: A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the Peloponnese.
 
424 BCE: Spartan Brasidas' campaign in Thrace.
 
422 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas dies of his wounds at Amphipolis.
 
422 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas employs Myrkinian and Chalkidian peltasts to defeat a force of Athenian hoplites at Amphipolis.
 
421 BCE: Spartan soldiers return from campaigning Thrace, some as Neodamodeis.
 
420 BCE: Sparta is excluded from the Olympic Games for breaking the ekecheiria or sacred truce.
 
418 BCE: Sparta, led by Agis II, defeats Argos and her allies at the battle of Mantinaea.
 
 
417 BCE - 415 BCE: Melos, after supporting Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, is attacked by Athens.
 
 
413 BCE: On the advice of Alcibiades the Spartans take over the Athenian-held fort of Dekeleia.
 
 
412 BCE: Rhodes revolts against Athens and supports Sparta in the Peloponnesian War.
 
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
 
 
410 BCE: Alcibiades leads the Athenian fleet to victory over Sparta at Cyzicus.
 
 
406 BCE: The Athenian fleet is defeated by Lysander of Sparta at Notium.
 
 
404 BCE: Sparta attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus destroying parts of the Long Wall fortifications.
 
 
404 BCE: End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
 
398 BCE: Xenophon works as mercenary for Sparta.
 
 
396 BCE: Spartan Agesilaus II's campaign into Ionia.
 
 
395 BCE - 386 BCE: The Corinthian Wars between Sparta and an alliance of Athens, Corinth, Argos, Boeotia and Thebes.
 
390 BCE: Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near Corinth.
 
 
387 BCE: Sparta attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus.
 
 
379 BCE - 376 BCE: Sparta establishes a garrison at Thebes.
 
 
377 BCE - 355 BCE: The Cycladic city states join Athens in the Second Athenian League against Sparta .
 
375 BCE: Thebes defeats Sparta at the Battle of Tegyra.
 
 
371 BCE: Thebes defeats Sparta in the Battle of Leuktra.
 
367 BCE: Celtic mercenaries fight with the Spartans against Thebes.
 
362 BCE: Indecisive Battle of Matinea where Thebes fought against Sparta and Athens. Theban general Epaminondas is killed.
 
 
219 BCE: The physician Archagathus of Sparta arrives in Rome.
 
267 CE: The Goths sack Athens, Corinth, Sparta, and Argos.
 
 
396 CE: Sparta is sacked by the Visigoths led by Alaric.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
900 BCE 700 BCE 500 BCE 300 BCE 100 BCE 100 CE 300 CE

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