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900 BCE: Sparta is founded.
720 BCE: The dolichos foot-race is added to the schedule of the Olympic Games and is won by Akanthos of Sparta.
706 BCE: Tarentum in Magna Graecia founded by Spartan settlers.
700 BCE: Sparta, Argos and Paros hold the first documented musical competitions in Greece.
650 BCE: Sparta crushes Messenian revolt.
525 BCE: Sparta and Corinth unsuccessfully attack Polycrates of Samos.
505 BCE - 365 BCE: Peloponnesian League alliance between Sparta, Corinth, Elis and Tegea which establishes Spartan hegemony over the Peloponnese.
494 BCE - 493 BCE: Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the city of Argos.
494 BCE - 493 BCE: Telesilla of Argos defends her city against the Spartan forces with an army of women.
490 BCE: Leonidas beomes one of Sparta's two kings.
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
480 BCE: Death of King Leonidas of Sparta at the Battle of Thermopylae.
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
478 BCE: Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
464 BCE - 463 BCE: Earthquake in Sparta, followed by slave revolt. Surrender of Thasos.
460 BCE - 445 BCE: First Peloponnesian War.
457 BCE: Sparta wins the battle of Tanagra during the 1st Peloponnesian War with Athens.
451 BCE - 450 BCE: Peace between Argos and Sparta. Athens and Sparta conclude five-year truce.
451 BCE: Thirty years peace between Argos and Sparta.
446 BCE - 445 BCE: Spartans invade Attica. Thirty Years’ Peace between Athens and Sparta.
432 BCE: Sparta declares that Athens has broken the Thirty Year Peace and prepares for war.
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
431 BCE - 404 BCE: Thebes sides with Sparta against Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The Cycladic city states side with Athens in the Peloponnesian war against Sparta and her allies.
430 BCE - 354 BCE: Life of Xenophon of Athens.
429 BCE: Peloponnesian forces led by Sparta begin the siege of Plataea.
429 BCE: Following attacks by Sparta, fortifications at the port of Piraeus are extended to reduce the width of the harbour entrances.
427 BCE: Plataea finally falls to the Spartans after a two year siege.
425 BCE: Pylos campaign, under Cleon and Demosthenes' command Athens defeats Sparta at Pylos.
424 BCE - 420 BCE: The Nike of Paionios is erected at Olympia to commemorate the Messenian and Naupaktian victory over Sparta at the battle of Sphakteria.
424 BCE: Spartan Brasidas' campaign in Thrace.
424 BCE: A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the Peloponnese.
422 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas employs Myrkinian and Chalkidian peltasts to defeat a force of Athenian hoplites at Amphipolis.
421 BCE: Spartan soldiers return from campaigning Thrace, some as Neodamodeis.
420 BCE: Sparta is excluded from the Olympic Games for breaking the ekecheiria or sacred truce.
418 BCE: Sparta, led by Agis II, defeats Argos and her allies at the battle of Mantinaea.
417 BCE - 415 BCE: Melos, after supporting Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, is attacked by Athens.
413 BCE: On the advice of Alcibiades the Spartans take over the Athenian-held fort of Dekeleia.
412 BCE: Rhodes revolts against Athens and supports Sparta in the Peloponnesian War.
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
410 BCE: Alcibiades leads the Athenian fleet to victory over Sparta at Cyzicus.
406 BCE: The Athenian fleet is defeated by Lysander of Sparta at Notium.
404 BCE: Sparta attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus destroying parts of the Long Wall fortifications.
404 BCE: End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
398 BCE: Xenophon works as mercenary for Sparta.
396 BCE: Spartan Agesilaus II's campaign into Ionia.
395 BCE - 386 BCE: The Corinthian Wars between Sparta and an alliance of Athens, Corinth, Argos, Boeotia and Thebes.
390 BCE: Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near Corinth.
387 BCE: Sparta attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus.
379 BCE - 376 BCE: Sparta establishes a garrison at Thebes.
377 BCE - 355 BCE: The Cycladic city states join Athens in the Second Athenian League against Sparta .
375 BCE: Thebes defeats Sparta at the Battle of Tegyra.
371 BCE: Thebes defeats Sparta in the Battle of Leuktra.
367 BCE: Celtic mercenaries fight with the Spartans against Thebes.
362 BCE: Indecisive Battle of Matinea where Thebes fought against Sparta and Athens. Theban general Epaminondas is killed.
219 BCE: The physician Archagathus of Sparta arrives in Rome.
267 CE: The Goths sack Athens, Corinth, Sparta, and Argos.
396 CE: Sparta is sacked by the Visigoths led by Alaric.