Ancient History Encyclopedia is a non-profit educational website with a global vision: to provide the best ancient history information on the internet for free.

We combine different media, subjects and periods in interactive ways that will help readers understand both the "big picture" and the detail. Editorial review is a key component in our process to ensure highest quality.



Jan van der Crabben
CEO & Founder

MA War Studies, King's College London
BA Journalism, University of East London

Jan is the founder, director, programmer, and editor-in-chief of Ancient History Encyclopedia. He's had a passion for ancient history for many years. Originally trained as a journalist he now works as a game designer of historical computer games. His game credits include BAFTA-winning Empire: Total War, Napoleon: Total War, Remanum, The Ancient Mediterranean Mod, and the upcoming Rome II: Total War. The idea to launch this site came from the fact that it is hard to find reliable free online information on ancient history. He is not peer reviewing any content himself as he is not a professional historian. As a former journalist he is the guardian of high-quality writing on the site.

Mark Cartwright
Publishing Director

MA Philosophy, University of York
BA Politics, University of Teesside

Mark studied Greek philosophy with a particular focus on Plato but has since widened his interests to include all things ancient Greek. Special interests are the Minoan civilization and 5th century Classical Athens. He is also interested in ancient pottery and what these everyday objects can reveal about past lives and traditions. He is a great believer in Jacques-Yves Cousteau's maxim: "Il Faut aller voir" - we must go and look for ourselves - and hopes his photos will inspire visitors to AHE to do the same.

Joshua J. Mark
Editor & Member of the Board

MA English, SUNY College New Paltz
BA English/Philosophy, SUNY College New Paltz

Joshua is a freelance writer and part-time College Professor who has taught both introductory and upper level philosophy, english, writing, and history courses. Believing that one gains a greater insight into literature, philosophy, or any other subject, through a knowldege of historical background, Joshua has included the study of history in the pursuit of his academic degrees and emphasizes the importance of history in the courses he teaches. He writes for Ancient History Encyclopedia because he admires the vision of the site in providing free, reliable, peer-reviewed information on ancient history. Joshua' s area of expertise is ancient Mesopotamian and ancient Greek history, though he does write on the other civilizations or subjects he has studied and taught in classes.

James Wiener
Communications Director

MA World History, New York University
BA History (Magna cum Laude), New York University

James Blake Wiener is the Communications Director at the Ancient History Encyclopedia. Trained as a historian and researcher, and previously a professor, James is also a freelance writer, editor, and journalist who is interested in cross-cultural exchange, world history, and international relations. Committed to fostering increased awareness of the ancient world -- while still retaining his medievalist and early modernist tendencies -- James is committed to excellence in journalism and academic research. Currently, he co-hosts the Florida Caribe Show on WSLR 96.5 FM in Florida, and his greatest passion is translation. James welcomes you to the Ancient History Encyclopedia and hopes that you find his news pieces to be "illuminating."

Team Members

All directors are also editors.

Karen Barrett-Wilt
Encyclopedia Curator

MA History of Art, Indiana University - Bloomington
BA English, Grinnell College

Karen is a freelance editor, writer, and blogger who studied Islamic and Ancient Near Eastern art and architecture in graduate school and has remained fascinated with these subjects ever since. For her, art and architecture are pathways to learning about history and culture. She is particularly interested in Turkey, where the Ancient Near East meets Byzantium meets Islam, and is currently attempting to learn Turkish in the hope that she'll be able to communicate with more than hand signals and smiles when she goes back next summer. She is also a contributor to Kunstpedia.

James Lloyd
Social Media Assistant

MA Classics and Ancient History, University of Exeter (Undertaking)
BA (Hons) Hellenic Studies with Archaeology (University of Exeter)

James has been involved with AHE since 2012 and he hopes that in his new role of Social Media Assistant he will help to make the ancient world accessible through the use of the free internet. James' main studies revolve around ancient Greek music, mythology, and comedy (literary and visual). He plans to really challenge his understanding of these topics during his MA, and hopes to pursue a PhD afterwards. A self-confessed philhellene, James keeps at least one eye on the Roman pie. He acted as Archaeological Assistant at the Romano-British site of Ipplepen in 2014, and was involved with social media and community outreach. In his spare time James enjoys playing bassoon and conducting.

Liana Miate
Social Media Assistant

BA Ancient History, Macquarie University, Sydney (Undertaking)

Liana has always been passionate about ancient history – particularly ancient Rome and Greece, and anything to do with mythology, and the study of women in the ancient world. She is studying ancient history (Greece, Rome and Late Antiquity) at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. She is also interested in writing (screen and creative), and social media, and is currently working as a social media assistant for Ancient History Encyclopedia, where she hopes to attract more people to the fascinating world of ancient history through photos and interesting facts. She believes that many lessons can be learned if people just take the time to look to the past.

Jason Moser
Web Developer

BA Linguistics, University of Maryland College Park
BS Mathematics, University of Maryland Baltimore County

Jason is a web developer for the Ancient History Encyclopedia striving to add new and cool features to the site and keep it functioning well. Formerly an office worker, he decided to quit and learn web programming skills in order to achieve one of his main goals in life, to create online interactive educational tools for ancient history, particularly ancient languages. Among the ancient languages he has studied are Latin, Ancient Greek, Akkadian, Sumerian, Egyptian, Biblical Hebrew, and Sanskrit. Jason also enjoys Sci-Fi and Heavy Metal music.

Kathryn Peyton
Head of Finance

MBA, Haas School, UC Berkeley
BA Political Science, Duke University

Kathryn oversees the financial situation of Ancient History Encyclopedia and works on other marketing and curriculum development projects. She is thrilled to have this opportunity to combine her interests in history, teaching/learning and business in such a fun and interesting way. Kathryn is currently a non-profit board member and business consultant in Northern California, but she is most proud of her experience teaching ancient history, economics and business at the high school level in Northern Virginia for almost 10 years, where she was the state Economics Teacher of the Year in 2010. Before becoming a teacher, she held various finance and accounting positions in the Bay Area. She has loved ancient history since her long-ago days in Latin class and the Junior Classical League.

Cristian Violatti

BA Archaeology, University of Leicester (ongoing)
BA Human Resources, Universidad de Morón, Buenos Aires

Cristian Violatti is a student of Archaeology at the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom. His interests and time are primarily devoted to mythology, religion, philosophy and science. He also specialises in Asian culture. Cristian is well travelled, having lived in numerous countries all over the world. In his pursuit of knowledge of the ancient world, Cristian has visited some ancient cities in South Asia, which includes Lumbini and Kapilavastu in Nepal, fueling his interest for the cultural heritage of Asia. By exploring new cultures and diversity, Cristian hopes his contributions published in Ancient History Encyclopedia are as enjoyable and interesting to you, as they are to him.

Key Contributors

Osama S.M. Amin

Baghdad University, College of Medicine
Fellow of the American College of Physicians
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow
Fellow of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association

Osama graduated from Baghdad University, College of Medicine and was the valedictorian student in internal medicine. He got membership diplomas of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of Ireland and Glasgow and then became Board-certified in neurology. Osama is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians and Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. Currently, he is a consultant neurologist at Shorsh Military General Hospital. Osama published more than 40 articles in international peer-reviewed neurology journals and 5 self-assessment books for the membership diploma of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom and Ireland. He is an associate editor, guest editor, and reviewer in several international peer-reviewed internal medicine and neurology journals. Osama is very interested in Mesopotamian history and always tries to take photos of archeological sites and artifacts in museums, both in Iraq and around the world. He is a contributor/team member of "Medical MasterClass," the online educational arm of the Royal College of Physicians of London, UK.

Carole Raddato

Carole Raddato's favourite hobby is travelling and for the last 8 years she has taken a huge interest in the history of the ancient world. She has dedicated all her free time to this passion. She loves to share with other history fans all the incredible facts and stories that she discovers throughout her journeys. She is neither a professional photographer nor an ancient history scholar, but she hopes that everybody can enjoy her photos. She is particularly interested in everything related to the emperor Hadrian whom she finds fascinating. He was himself an incessant traveller, visiting every province in the Empire during his reign. When Carole is looking for new ideas for her travels, she usually takes inspiration from his journeys and it is a great motivation for her to follow him in his footsteps.

Antoine Simonin
Contributor & Peer Reviewer

MA Sciences de l'Antiquité, University of Strasbourg

Antoine is one of the first contributors to Ancient History Encyclopedia. He's fascinated with both video games and history, and studied Ancient Times at the University of Strasbourg until 2011. He's a specialist in numismatics and Central Asia in hellenistic and imperial times, with his master's thesis on Hellenism and acculturation phenomena in Central Asia through numismatics (250 BC - 150 AD). He also is an active member of the Europa Barbarorum project, mods of the Total War games which proposes the most historical accuracy and gaming depth possible with the engines. Now making exams to work in libraries, he still keeps the research side, by writing articles, and through a soon-launched association.

Dr. Donald L. Wasson
Contributor & Peer Reviewer

DA History, Illinois State University
MA History, Eastern Illinois University
BS in Education (History), Eastern Illinois University

I presently teach both Ancient/Medieval History and U. S. History at Lincoln College / Normal Campus in Normal, Illinois. Prior to my teaching college classes, I taught GED (high school equivalency - English, Math and Reading) classes for the Illinois Department of Corrections, retiring in 2004. My love of ancient history stems from my college days when I was first introduced to Alexander the Great and his conquest of Persia. Since those days, I have enjoyed reading not only about the great ancient philosophers but also Greek Mythology, as well as the early days of the Roman Empire. While researching for my Ancient History class, I discovered the Ancient History Encyclopedia and immediately decided I wanted to be part of it. The articles/definitions I contribute and well as those I peer review have helped me immensely in my own teaching. I continually recommend the site to my students while researching assigned projects.

Other Contributors

Ehdaa Almusawi
Graphic Designer

BA Graphic Design, University College of Bahrain

Ehdaa Almusawi is a creative graphic designer and marketing professional from Bahrain. Ehdaa earned her BA in Graphic Design from the University College of Bahrain, and has extensive experience in managing corporate communications and design projects throughout the Middle East. As a certified marketing strategist, Ehdaa is passionate about harnessing the potential of social media in the corporate and nonprofit sectors. In addition to design and marketing, Ehdaa is passionate about the preservation and understanding of Middle Eastern cultural patrimony, in the Gulf Region and beyond. Ehdaa brings Arabian flair and color to AHE through her artistic vision and cross-cultural designs, and hopes that AHE will be around for a very long time.

Fatema AlSulaiti

MA, Islamic Art and Architecture, The American University of Cairo, Egypt
BA, Fine Arts, Virginia Commonwealth University in Doha, Qatar

Fatema AlSulaiti is an Archaeologist and Art Historian, who currently holds a professorship at Zayed University in Abu Dhabi, UAE, where she teaches courses on Islamic architecture. Her chief areas of interest include the history of Islamic architecture, urbanism, landscape design, and the conservation of Middle Eastern patrimony. AlSulaiti's study on the role of modern design in contemporary and traditional architecture has received widespread acclaim and international recognition from a variety of cultural and heritage organizations in the Middle East, Europe, and North America. While undertaking a doctorate degree in Islamic archaeology, AlSulaiti researches the technical and engineering aspects of archaeology and their application to contemporary design projects. Committed to the preservation and study of ancient and Islamic history, AlSulaiti's work affords much-needed visibility to Islamic cultural heritage around the world. For more on her work, please visit Moqarnasat: AlSulaiti's research page on Islamic arts and culture.

Robert Dobbin
Contributor & Peer Reviewer

Ph.D. Classics, University of California at Berkeley

Robert specializes in the field of ancient philosophy. He has authored books on Epictetus and the Cynics, as well as articles and reviews on Plato, Cicero, and Virgil. The ongoing scholarly controversy about the Proto-Indo-Europeans, e.g., their dates and provenance, has caught his curiosity of late, leading him to dabble in other ancient IE languages, and further push back the horizons of his interest into the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages.

Irene Fanizzia
Contributor & Photographer

Surveyor graduate, Cangrande Della Scala's Institute, Verona
BA Archaeology, University of Padua
Currently studying Photography for cultural heritage in Venice

Irene is a photographer and surveyor graduate. Before coming to archaeology, she studied geology for two years, climbing and entering into the bowels of the earth first to find out how to combine her love for the earth sciences with her other love, the humanities. Her thesis, Underground Rome, some reflections is the combination of these two aspects that led her to achieve her major thesis goals, such as creating a map of all the underground sites in Rome. Irene travels a lot, she does a lot of volunteer work and with her pictures she tries to communicate and share the places she visits, the people she meets and the experiences that she makes. She also writes about her travels.

Danielle Fiore

BA Roman History, University of Turin

Danielle has always been fascinated by History. She studied Roman History at the University of Turin until 2011 and is now writing historical essays for an Italian cultural circle about the Greco-Roman presence in Southern Italy. She is also highlighting historical topics in her blog. She has a great interest in the battle of Adrianople and the fall of the Roman Empire, which was the subject of her BA dissertation, with a careful focus on the social and economical transition to the Middle Ages. Danielle is also interested the Middle Ages, as well as the Italian Renaissance and Lutheran Reformation. Since 2008 she is working as a model, being the first Italian medieval/fantasy model. She is interested in reaching a bigger public with the help of her pictures, creating a mix between modern photography and ancient times.

Brittany Marie Garcia

BA Comparative Ancient Civilizations and Classical Studies, University of California Riverside

Brittany is a freelance writer and Classical Latin and Ancient Greek tutor. Her love of the ancient world was one she discovered very early on and has continued to pursue it through all avenues. She maintains a personal blog and Facebook page in which she updates her followers on news of the Ancient World. She is a volunteer Latin translator for the Iris Project with NASA's "Making Mars Speak Latin." She also contributes articles to the free newsletter: Classical Wisdom Weekly. She currently is in the process of applying to Classics and Ancient History graduate programs for her M.A and PhD. Her main interests lie in gender roles in epic, mythology, and early Greek literature. For fun, she is currently writing a modern play adaptation of Virgil's Aeneid.

Patrick Hurley
Contributor & Peer Reviewer

DPhil Archaeology & Ancient History, University of Liverpool

Adjunct Professor, Department of Classics and Humanities at Montclair State University.

Jennifer Irving

PhD Ancient History, Macquarie University, Sydney (Undertaking)
B. Anc. Hist. (Hons), Macquarie University, Sydney

Jenni is a Doctoral Candidate in ancient history who specialises in Ancient Greek Epigraphic, Gender and Medical Studies. She also contributes to archaeological excavations in the UK, Australia, Greece and Turkey. Jenni is currently continuing her PhD concerning female remedial practitioners in ancient Greece and Anatolia. Prior to starting her PhD, Jenni received a Bachelor of Ancient History with Honours and Certificates in Advanced Ancient Language Studies in Classical and Koine Greek, Linear B, Papyrological and Epigraphic Studies and Hieroglyphs. She has collaborated with Macquarie University, Sydney University, The University of the Highlands and Islands, The Ohio State University and The University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and is also a committee member for the Society for the Study of Early Christianity. Jenni has always been a passionate historian and is fascinated by everything archaeological. Blogger in her spare time, history has become her productive form of procrastination as well. Excited to be part of an up and coming tool that provides reliable information that is the Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Justin King
Contributor & Peer Reviewer

MA Biblical Studies, Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminary
BA History, Bluffton University

Though there is almost no sub-discipline of biblical studies which does not pique his interest, Justin's primary interests are all things Hebrew Bible (though the Pentateuch and the Minor Prophets occupy most of his attention), literary methods of interpretation, the Ancient Near Eastern context of the Hebrew Bible, the Dead Sea Scrolls, Second Temple Judaism, and Hellenistic Judaism. Justin first stumbled across AHE while looking for reliable online resources on biblical studies and the Ancient Near East. Justin is excited to be part of a project which seeks to make reliable resources for the study of the ancient world freely available.

Lisa Swart
Peer Reviewer

PhD Ancient Cultures, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Lisa Swart is an independent Egyptologist, specializing in the Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, Egyptian art and iconography, funerary customs and theology. She has presented papers at various national and international conferences on the ancient world. She has also published several scholarly articles, with several more in line for submission including encyclopedia articles (paper and online). Currently, she serves as a peer-reviewer for several academic journals and an online ancient world encyclopedia. She is currently working on several projects on the Third Intermediate Period. Her pet project is a database of Third Intermediate funerary items in museums all over the world.

A self-confessed history-geek, Lisa is passionate about history, from the ancient to modern times, and enjoys writing and reviewing historical works. She firmly believes that reliable, factually correct information should be freely available to everyone, which is why the Ancient History Encyclopedia is such fantastic tool!

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