Warfare Timeline

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Legend:

2500 BCE 2000 BCE 1500 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE 0 CE 500 CE 1000 CE 1500 CE  
 
2400 BCE: First use of war chariots in Mesopotamia.
 
2240 BCE: Naram-Sin of Akkad campaigns against the Amorites in northern Syria.
 
 
2200 BCE - 1500 BCE: The Minoan Civilization flourishes on Crete, Greece. King Minos establishes the first navy in the region.
 
 
2193 BCE: Gutian invasion destroys Akkadian empire.
 
 
1991 BCE - 1962 BCE: Amenemhat I creates the first Egyptian standing army.
 
 
1813 BCE - 1791 BCE: Reign of Shamashi Adad I who drives out Amorites, secures border of Assyria, makes Ashur capital.
 
 
1750 BCE: Elam conquers Ur.
 
 
1595 BCE: Hittites under Mursilli I sack Babylon, ending Amorite rule.
 
 
1458 BCE: Kadesh and Megiddo lead a Canaanite alliance against the Egyptian invasion by Thutmose III.
 
1457 BCE: Battle of Megiddo: Thutmose III of Egypt defeats a coalition of Canaan, Kadesh, Mitanni, and Megiddo led by Durusha, king of Kadesh.
 
1400 BCE: The beginning of Celtic culture in the upper Danube region of central Europe.
 
1307 BCE - 1275 BCE: Reign of Assyrian King Adad-Nirari I, Mitanni becomes vassal state.
 
1274 BCE: Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
 
 
1258 BCE: The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world's first peace treaty.
 
1250 BCE: Trojan War, according to Herodotus.
 
 
1250 BCE: Shalmaneser I of Assyria conquers the kingdom of Mitanni and defeats its allies.
 
1245 BCE: Battle of Nihriya: Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria defeats Tudahalija IV of the Hittites.
 
1244 BCE - 1208 BCE: Reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, Hittites conquered.
 
 
1225 BCE: Tukulti-Ninurta I sacks Babylon.
 
 
1200 BCE: Sea Peoples invade the Levant.
 
1187 BCE: Kadesh is destroyed by the Sea Peoples and subsequently vanishes from history.
 
1178 BCE: Ramesses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.
 
 
1115 BCE - 1076 BCE: Reign of Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria who conquers Phoenicia and revitalizes the empire.
 
 
853 BCE: Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
 
 
800 BCE - 500 BCE: Greek colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
 
800 BCE - 700 BCE: Homer's Iliad is composed with mention of medical treatment in Greek warfare.
 
800 BCE - 600 BCE: Early Iron Age Hallstatt culture flourishes across Europe.
 
 
771 BCE: Following nomadic attacks in the west, the Chinese Zhou dynasty moves its capital east to Luoyang. Beginning of Eastern Zhou Period.
 
750 BCE - 510 BCE: The semi-legendary celeres or trossuli - a 300-man cavalry corps which the first kings of Rome incorporated into the legion - is formed, later their number is increased to 600.
 
722 BCE - 705 BCE: Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
 
 
722 BCE: Israel is conquered by Assyria.
 
 
701 BCE: King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks the city of Lachish in Judah but fails to take the capital Jerusalem.
 
 
700 BCE: Corinthians adopt the trireme from the Phoenicians.
 
 
700 BCE: Iron Age begins in Scotland.
 
676 BCE: Scythians and Mannaens attack Assyria.
 
 
673 BCE: First Egyptian Campaign, Assyrians are defeated and retreat.
 
 
671 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Assyria.
 
 
671 BCE: Second Egyptian Campaign, Assyrian army successfully captures Memphis and conquers Egypt.
 
 
667 BCE - 665 BCE: Ashurbanipal wages war in Egypt to put down rebellions.
 
 
660 BCE: Corcyra wins a naval battle against their founding city of Corinth.
 
 
653 BCE: Egypt expels Assyrians.
 
650 BCE - 350 BCE: Hoplites are the major protagonists in Greek land warfare.
 
650 BCE: Sparta crushes Messenian revolt.
 
648 BCE: War between Assyria and the Elamites.
 
 
625 BCE - 585 BCE: Median army organized during the reign of Cyaxares of the Medes.
 
 
612 BCE: The great Assyrian cities of Ashur, Kalhu, and Nineveh are sacked and burned by the Medes, Babylonians, and Persian forces.
 
 
585 BCE: A battle between Media and Lydia broke off immediately as a result a total eclipse of the sun and the two armies made peace. The eclipse was successfully predicted by Thales of Miletus.
 
585 BCE - 572 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon besieges Tyre, unsuccessfully.
 
 
580 BCE - 376 BCE: Carthage and Greece fight for dominance in Sicily.
 
578 BCE - 535 BCE: Servius Tullius, the king of Rome, increases the number of the cavalry corps (equites) to 1,800.
 
 
550 BCE - 366 BCE: Peloponnesian League alliance between Sparta, Corinth, Elis and Tegea which establishes Spartan hegemony over the Peloponnese.
 
 
550 BCE - 530 BCE: Achaemenid Army organized under Cyrus the Great of Persia based on Cyaxares' model.
 
543 BCE - 492 BCE: King Bimbisara begins Magadha kingdom's conquests by annexing the kingdom of Anga in eastern India.
 
 
540 BCE: A joint Carthaginian and Cerveteri force wins the Battle of the Sardinian Sea against the Phocaeans.
 
 
539 BCE: Etruscan & Carthaginian alliance expels the Greeks from Corsica.
 
 
535 BCE: Battle of Alalia. Carthaginian navy, in alliance with Etruscans, defeated Greek ships off the island of Corsica.
 
 
530 BCE: Persia conquers the Indus Valley.
 
 
525 BCE: Sparta and Corinth unsuccessfully attack Polycrates of Samos.
 
 
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
 
 
522 BCE - 486 BCE: The Achaemenid Persian military is expanded and refined under the reign of Darius I the Great.
 
 
512 BCE - 506 BCE: The Wu Chu wars in China between the States of Wu and Chu.
 
 
508 BCE: Lars Porsenna, Etruscan king of Chiusi, lays siege to Rome.
 
 
506 BCE: The Battle of Boju at which the Wu forces under Sun-Tzu defeated the Chu.
 
 
500 BCE - 450 BCE: Hallstatt kingdoms and chiefdoms suddenly collapse for reasons unclear.
 
500 BCE: Carthage expands into southern Spain.
 
499 BCE - 494 BCE: Ionian cities rebel against Persian rule.
 
 
498 BCE - 493 BCE: Rome defeats the Latins.
 
 
494 BCE - 493 BCE: Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the city of Argos.
 
493 BCE: The first fortifications are constructed at Athens' port of Piraeus.
 
492 BCE - 460 BCE: Bimbisara's son and successor Ajatashatru defeats the Kosala kingdom after a long war.
 
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
 
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
 
 
486 BCE - 465 BCE: Achaemenid Persian military expanded further under the reign of Xerxes I.
 
 
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
 
 
484 BCE - 468 BCE: The 16-year long war between Vaishali and Magadha. The latter, under Ajatashatru, wins.
 
483 BCE: Themistocles persuades the Athenians to significantly expand their fleet, which saves them at Salamis and becomes their source of power.
 
 
481 BCE - 221 BCE: Warring States Period in China.
 
 
480 BCE: Tyrant of Syracuse Gelon defeats the Carthaginians at the battle of Himera.
 
480 BCE: Thebes sides with Persia during Xerxes invasion of Greece.
 
480 BCE: Agrigento defeats Carthage at the battle of Himera.
 
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
 
480 BCE: The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
 
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet led by Themistocles defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
 
 
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
 
 
478 BCE: Spartan general Pausanias is given command of a force and takes both Cyprus and Byzantium.
 
 
476 BCE - 221 BCE: The Warring States Period in China, suggested time-period for composition of The Art of War.
 
 
476 BCE - 463 BCE: Delian League operations are led by Athenian commander Cimon
 
475 BCE: Celts defeat the Etruscans at the Ticino River.
 
 
475 BCE: Athenian general Cimon defeats Spartan general Pausanias and takes Byzantium.
 
 
474 BCE: An Etruscan fleet is defeated by the navy of Syracuse at the Battle of Cumae.
 
 
466 BCE: Athenian general Cimon twice defeats the Persians at Eurymedon on the southern coast of Asia Minor.
 
 
465 BCE - 463 BCE: Athenian general Cimon conquers Chersonesus in Thrace and the north-Aegean island of Thasos.
 
460 BCE - 445 BCE: First Peloponnesian War.
 
 
457 BCE: Sparta wins the battle of Tanagra during the 1st Peloponnesian War with Athens.
 
 
453 BCE: Pericles erects trophy at Nemea after Athenian victory over the Sikyonians.
 
450 BCE: Rise of the Celtic La Tene culture.
 
 
450 BCE: Athenian general Cimon dies on Cyprus fighting the Persians.
 
448 BCE: Pericles leads the Athenian forces in the Battle of Delphi.
 
440 BCE: Hoplites become increasingly lighter-armoured, as new battle tactics required more mobility.
 
 
437 BCE - 435 BCE: Rome defeats Etruscan Veii in the Veientine War; the Etruscan king Lars Tolumnius is killed.
 
 
433 BCE: A naval battle between the victorious combined forces of Corcyra and Athens against Corinth.
 
431 BCE: Athens invades Megara.
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: Thebes sides with Sparta against Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The Cycladic city states side with Athens in the Peloponnesian war against Sparta and her allies.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
 
 
429 BCE: Peloponnesian forces led by Sparta begin the siege of Plataea.
 
429 BCE: Athens successfully campaigns in the Corinthian Gulf regions during the Peloponnesian War.
 
 
427 BCE: Plataea finally falls to the Spartans after a two year siege.
 
425 BCE: Pylos campaign, under Cleon and Demosthenes' command Athens defeats Sparta at Pylos.
 
425 BCE: Athenian and Corinthian hoplites fight a street battle in the suburbs of Solygeia.
 
425 BCE: Athenians capture Pylos. Spartan general Brasidas is injured in attempting to re-take the city.
 
 
424 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas takes Amphipolis, Thucydides failed to prevent this and is exiled.
 
424 BCE: Spartan Brasidas' campaign in Thrace.
 
424 BCE: A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the Peloponnese.
 
 
424 BCE: The Athenian expeditions against Megara and Boeotia are a failure with a particularly heavy defeat near Delion.
 
422 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas employs Myrkinian and Chalkidian peltasts to defeat a force of Athenian hoplites at Amphipolis.
 
422 BCE: The Athenians, led by Cleon, try to retake Amphipolis but are defeated by Brasidas.
 
418 BCE: Sparta, led by Agis II, defeats Argos and her allies at the battle of Mantinaea.
 
 
415 BCE: Alcibiades persuades the Athenian assembly to send a military expedition to Sicily.
 
 
415 BCE - 413 BCE: Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse.
 
 
415 BCE: The Histories of Herodotus is published. The work is divided into nine chapters, each dedicated to one of the Muses.
 
414 BCE - 396 BCE: The Magadha king Shishunaga annexes the kingdom of Avanti, ending the dynastic rule of the Pradyotas.
 
414 BCE: Athens constructs fortifications at Sounion.
 
 
413 BCE: The Athenian expedition in Sicily ends in disastrous defeat and the Athenian generals Nicias and Demosthenes are executed.
 
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
 
412 BCE: The Spartan general Astyochus sacks Kos.
 
 
410 BCE: Alcibiades leads the Athenian fleet to victory over Sparta at Cyzicus.
 
 
407 BCE: The Athenian fleet is defeated by Lysander of Sparta at Notium.
 
407 BCE: Athenian general Alcibiades makes his naval base on Samos.
 
406 BCE: Agrigento is attacked and destroyed by Carthage.
 
 
404 BCE: End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
 
400 BCE: Celts enter Italy and settle in the Po Valley.
 
400 BCE: The Roman cavalry is expanded to include riders who can pay for their own horse.
 
 
397 BCE: Dionysius I of Syracuse employs wheeled seige towers and bolt throwers for the first time in Greek warfare at the seige of Motya.
 
 
396 BCE: Rome sacks the Etruscan town of Veii after a ten-year siege.
 
 
396 BCE: Roman expansion begins with the capture of Veii from the Etruscans.
 
 
396 BCE: Celts defeat an Etruscan army at the battle of Melpum. Afterwards the Celts heavily settle all over the Po Valley.
 
 
396 BCE: Spartan Agesilaus II's campaign into Ionia.
 
 
395 BCE - 386 BCE: The Corinthian Wars between Sparta and an alliance of Athens, Corinth, Argos, Boeotia and Thebes.
 
395 BCE: Spartan general Lysander is killed by Theban forces at the Battle of Hallartos.
 
 
394 BCE: Etruscan Volsinii and their ally Sappinum unsuccessfully attacks Rome.
 
394 BCE: Spartan king Agesilaus II defeats a Theban coalition at the battle of Coronea.
 
391 BCE: Senones besiege Clusium, an Etruscan city.
 
390 BCE: Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near Corinth.
 
390 BCE: Gauls sack Rome.
 
390 BCE: "Gallic Catastrophe:" Brennus of the Senones defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome.
 
 
384 BCE: Syracuse attacks the ports of the Etruscan city of Cerveteri.
 
 
382 BCE - 379 BCE: Sparta establishes a garrison at Thebes.
 
378 BCE - 377 BCE: Spartan king Agesilaus II campaigns in Boeotia.
 
375 BCE: Thebes defeats Sparta at the Battle of Tegyra.
 
 
371 BCE: Thebes, led by Epaminondas, defeats Sparta in the Battle of Leuctra.
 
367 BCE: Celtic mercenaries fight with the Spartans against Thebes.
 
 
366 BCE: Theban general Epaminondas builds a fleet to harass the Athenian Empire.
 
364 BCE: Theban general Pelopidas is victorious but killed at the Battle of Kynoskephalai.
 
364 BCE: Macedonian general Perdiccas III successfully defends Amphipolis against Athenian attack.
 
362 BCE: Indecisive Battle of Matinea where Thebes fought against Sparta and Athens. Theban general Epaminondas is killed.
 
356 BCE: 307 Roman prisoners are sacrificed in the forum of the Etruscan city of Tarquinia.
 
 
349 BCE: Phocion leads an Athenian campaign in Euboea.
 
346 BCE - 324 BCE: Magadha's king Mahapadma Nanda makes massive conquests in north and eastern India including Kosala.
 
 
344 BCE: Corcyra contributes two ships to Timoleon's fleet which attacked Syracuse.
 
343 BCE - 341 BCE: First Samnite War (Rome vs. Samnites).
 
342 BCE: Philip II leads a military expedition against the Scythians.
 
 
341 BCE: Timoleon defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Crimisus in Sicily.
 
 
340 BCE: Phocion defeats Philip II of Macedon at Byzantium.
 
338 BCE: The first battle of Chaeronea. Philip II of Macedon defeats the Greek alliance directed against him, led by Athens and Thebes.
 
338 BCE: Philip of Macedonia defeats the Greek allied forces of Athens, Thebes and Corinth in the Battle of Chaironeia.
 
 
338 BCE: Timoleon agrees a peace treaty with Carthage over their control of Sicily.
 
334 BCE: Alexander invades the Persian empire.
 
 
334 BCE - 323 BCE: Period of the conquests of Alexander the Great.
 
 
334 BCE: Sardis surrenders to Alexander the Great.
 
333 BCE: Battle of Issus. Alexander is victorious against Darius III of Persia.
 
330 BCE: Persepolis is burned and looted by Alexander the Great.
 
327 BCE - 325 BCE: Alexander's campaign in northern India.
 
327 BCE: The argyraspides, a special unit of hypaspist, is formed.
 
326 BCE - 304 BCE: Second Samnite War.
 
326 BCE: Battle of Hydaspes where King Porus of the Paurava kingdom met a disastrous defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great.
 
 
323 BCE: Death of Alexander the Great.
 
323 BCE - 282 BCE: Rule of Ptolemy I Soter.
 
322 BCE - 275 BCE: The Wars of the Diadochi, also known as the Wars of Alexander's Successors.
 
 
322 BCE: Demetrius I flees Phrygia with his father Antigonus I.
 
321 BCE - 315 BCE: Seleucos rules the satrapy of Babylon.
 
 
320 BCE: Chandragupta Maurya seizes the throne of Magadhan and expands the kingdom over northern and central India.
 
 
319 BCE: Death of Antipater, regent of Macedon.
 
317 BCE: Demetrius I commands his father's cavalry units at the battles of Paraetacene and Gabiene in Persia.
 
316 BCE: Satrap of Persis Peucestas is defeated at the Gabiene Battle, alongside of Eumenes. Evagros is appointed in Persis by Antigonus I Monopthalmus.
 
316 BCE: Thessalonica is founded by Cassander.
 
 
314 BCE: Antigonus I establishes the League of Islanders which includes Delos.
 
 
312 BCE: Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
 
312 BCE: Evagros is killed in battle by Seleucos I. Persis comes under Seleucid rule.
 
 
312 BCE: Demetrius I of Macedon loses the Battle of Giza against Ptolemy I and Seleucus I Nicator.
 
 
311 BCE: A Carthaginian army defeats Agathocles of Syracuse near Gela, Sicily.
 
 
310 BCE: Agathocles of Syracuse lands an army of 14,000 in North Africa.
 
309 BCE: Lysimachus founds the city of Lysimachia to secure the Dardanelles.
 
 
309 BCE - 308 BCE: Agathocles of Syracuse successfuly campaigns in North Africa defeating Carthaginian armies and taking Utica and Hippacra.
 
 
309 BCE: Syracuse defeats a Carthaginian army in Sicily and kills their general Hamilcar.
 
 
307 BCE: Carthage defeats the army of Agathocles of Syracuse led by Archagathus while Agathocles is in Sicily.
 
 
306 BCE: Demetrius I of Macedon defeats Ptolemy's fleet at Salamis, off the coast of Cyprus.
 
 
306 BCE: Carthage and Agathocles of Syracuse sign a peace treaty and divide Sicily between them.
 
 
305 BCE: Emperor Chandragupta signs a treaty with Seleucos I, establishing borders and giving the Punjab to Chandragupta in return for 500 war elephants.
 
305 BCE - 297 BCE: Cassander is self-proclaimed king of Macedon.
 
 
301 BCE: The Battle of Ipsus in central Phrygia where Lysimachus and Seleucos I defeat Antigonus I and Demetrius I of Macedon.
 
 
300 BCE: Sarmatians conquer the Scythians.
 
 
298 BCE - 290 BCE: Third Samnite War. Victory for Rome, peace with the Etruscans.
 
 
298 BCE - 272 BCE: Chandragupta's son, Bindusara, rules and expands the Mauryan Empire.
 
298 BCE - 290 BCE: Third Samnite War between Rome and the Samnite people.
 
297 BCE: Celts and Samnites join forces and defeat the Romans at Camertium.
 
295 BCE: Roman victory over Samnites, Gauls and Umbrians at Sentinum.
 
 
295 BCE: Demetrius I campaigns in central Greece, removes the tyrant Lachares from Athens and defeats Sparta.
 
295 BCE: In a battle lasting all day, Romans narrowly defeat a force of Celts and Samnites at Sentinum.
 
295 BCE: Seleucos I makes an alliance with local Persis dynast, Ardaxsir, becoming the first frataraka of Persis.
 
 
294 BCE: A Roman army led by L. Postimius Megellus defeats an army from Etruscan Volsinii.
 
294 BCE - 288 BCE: Demetrius I rules as king of Macedon.
 
292 BCE: Lysimachus is captured by Dromichaites, the king of Getae and forced to surrender Trans-Danubian territories.
 
 
288 BCE: Pyrrhus of Epirus becomes ruler of Macedon.
 
 
288 BCE: When his army deserts him Demetrius I flees Macedon.
 
285 BCE: Demetrius I surrenders to Seleucus I and lives as a prsioner for three years until his death.
 
 
285 BCE - 282 BCE: Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
 
284 BCE: Gauls of the Insubres and Boii tribes defeat the Romans at Arretium.
 
 
284 BCE: Lysimachus drives Pyrrhus out of Macedon.
 
 
284 BCE: Etruscan Volsinii with an army of Gauls attacks Arretium.
 
283 BCE: Rome decisively defeats the Senones at Picenum.
 
283 BCE: Romans defeat the Etruscans and Celts at lake Vadimo.
 
 
281 BCE: Lysimachus is defeated by Seleucus I at Corupedium.
 
 
280 BCE - 272 BCE: Roman war against Tarentum. Rome conquers Tarentum. Rome's dominance in lower Italy is secured.
 
 
280 BCE - 275 BCE: King Pyrrhus of Epirus wages the Pyrrhic War against the Romans in Italy, defence of Tarentum being the pretext.
 
 
280 BCE: The Romans conquer the Etruscan cities of Tarquinia, Volsinii and Vulci.
 
280 BCE: Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the Battle of Heraclea.
 
279 BCE: Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the Battle of Asculum.
 
 
278 BCE: The Qin state captures Ying, the capital of the Chu state.
 
 
275 BCE: The Romans defeat Pyrrhus of Epirus at the Battle of Maleventum.
 
 
273 BCE: Pyrrhus of Epirus attacks Macedon and Sparta.
 
 
273 BCE: Rome conquers the Etruscan town of Cerveteri.
 
272 BCE: Death of Pyrrhus of Epirus in a street battle in Argos.
 
 
264 BCE - 241 BCE: First Punic War. Carthage cedes Sicily to Rome.
 
 
264 BCE: The Mamertines at Messana on Sicily call for Carthaginian and then Roman help in defence against Syracuse, sparking the First Punic War.
 
 
264 BCE: Etruscan Volsinii is sacked by the Romans and its residents relocated to Bolsena.
 
 
262 BCE - 260 BCE: The Battle of Changping, one of the most important battles in the Warring States Period in China between Zhao and Qin.
 
262 BCE: Rome besieges and sacks Agrigento on Sicily in one of the first actions of the First Punic War.
 
 
262 BCE: Ashoka conquers Kalinga. The bloodshed makes him remorseful, and he turns towards non-violence.
 
260 BCE: First Roman naval victory against Carthage off Mylae in the First Punic War.
 
260 BCE: Rome builds a fleet of 120 ships in just 60 days to fight the First Punic War.
 
258 BCE: Rome wins a naval battle against Carthage at Sulcis during the First Punic War.
 
256 BCE: Rome wins a land battle south of Tunis during the First Punic War.
 
256 BCE: Roman naval victory against Carthage off Ecnomus during the First Punic War.
 
 
256 BCE: The army of the state of Qin captures the city of Chengzhou and the last Zhou ruler, King Nan, is killed. End of the Zhou Dynasty.
 
256 BCE: Rome lands an army of four legions on African soil at Clupea during the First Punic War.
 
255 BCE - 253 BCE: Roman fleets are wrecked by storms off Pachynus and Palinurus during the First Punic War.
 
255 BCE: A Carthaginain army led by the mercenary Spartan commander Xanthippus defeats two Roman legions near Tunis during the First Punic War.
 
250 BCE - 200 CE: Originally a Celtiberian weapon, the Gladius Hispaniensis was commonly used by Roman soldiers for more than four centuries.
 
250 BCE: A Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal is defeated by Roman consul Metellus near Palermo in the First Punic War.
 
249 BCE: Carthage defeats Rome in a naval battle at Drepanum during the First Punic War.
 
247 BCE - 224 CE: Empire of the Parthians.
 
 
247 BCE: Hamilcar Barca raids southern Italy and then lands on Sicily during the First Punic War.
 
247 BCE - 224 CE: Under the Parthian Empire, cavalry becomes the dominant force of the military in the region.
 
242 BCE: A Roman fleet besieges the Carthaginian stronghold of Drepana on Sicily during the First Punic War.
 
241 BCE: Roman naval victory off the Aegates Islands leads to victory over Carthage, ending the First Punic War.
 
 
241 BCE - 197 BCE: Reign of Attalus I at Pergamon.
 
237 BCE: Hamilcar Barca arrives in southern Spain to expand Carthage's interests there. He makes his base at Gades and founds Acra Leuce.
 
 
230 BCE - 221 BCE: King Ying Zheng of Qin defeats the other warring states, claims Mandate of Heaven to rule China.
 
229 BCE - 228 BCE: Rome fights Illyrian pirates. Queen Teuta pays tribute to Rome.
 
 
229 BCE: Corcyra is captured by the Illyrians.
 
229 BCE: Hasdrubal takes command of Carthage's armies in Spain.
 
225 BCE: Celts defeat 6000 Romans at Faesulae and proceed to overrun Etruria.
 
225 BCE: Macedonians bring an army across the Isthmus to face another Achaian force trying to take Corinth.
 
223 BCE: Romans successfully campaign against Celtic tribes of Cisalpine Gaul.
 
 
222 BCE: Rome conquers Cisalpine Gaul (modern-day Provence, France).
 
 
222 BCE: The Achaean League and Antigonos III of Macedon defeat Sparta at Sellasia.
 
221 BCE: Hannibal takes command of Carthage's armies in Spain.
 
 
221 BCE: Construction of Northern Frontier wall by Shi Huangdi, First Emperor of China, precursor to Great Wall.
 
220 BCE: Gortyn allies with Knossos to defeat Lyttos on Crete.
 
219 BCE: Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War.
 
 
218 BCE: Construction of the Great Wall of China is initiated.
 
 
218 BCE - 202 BCE: Second Punic War.
 
218 BCE: Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal sacks Saguntum in Spain. The Second Punic War begins.
 
218 BCE: Hannibal leaves Spain to cross the Pyrenees and Alps into Italy.
 
218 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Ticinus.
 
218 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Trebia.
 
217 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Lake Trasimene.
 
216 BCE: "Hannibal ante portas." Hannibal directly threatens the city of Rome, but cannot advance due to lack of supplies and reinforcements.
 
216 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Cannae, the worst defeat in Roman history.
 
215 BCE: A Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal is defeated at the battle of Ibera in Spain.
 
214 BCE - 205 BCE: First Macedonian War: Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon.
 
212 BCE: A Carthaginian army is defeated in Sicily by a Roman army led by Marcellus. Syracuse falls to Rome who now control the island.
 
211 BCE: A Carthaginian army defeats two Roman consuls and their armies in the Tader valley, Spain.
 
 
210 BCE - 207 BCE: Scipio Africanus conquers Spain for Rome.
 
 
210 BCE: First Emperor of China Shi Huangdi dies, buried with army of 8,000 terracotta warriors in palace tomb.
 
209 BCE: Scipio Africanus captures the Carthaginian base and treasury Carthago Nova in southern Spain.
 
208 BCE: Scipio Africanus defeats a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal at Baecula in Spain.
 
207 BCE: Rome defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Metaurus.
 
207 BCE: Hannibal, harassed by Roman forces, is reduced to controlling only Bruttium in southern Italy.
 
206 BCE: Scipio Africanus wins the battle of Ilipa in Spain.
 
 
206 BCE: Chinese Qin empire collapses following the death of emperor Shi Huangti. Civil War begins.
 
 
206 BCE - 205 BCE: The Romans conquer Gades. End of the Carthaginian presence on the Iberian Peninsula.
 
 
205 BCE: Philip V of Macedon take Samos.
 
204 BCE: Scipio Africanus sails to North Africa in the Second Punic War.
 
204 BCE - 203 BCE: Scipio Africanus wins two battles and besieges Utica in North Africa.
 
203 BCE: Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army is defeated in Cisalpine Gaul.
 
203 BCE: Scipio Africanus attacks the two camps of Syphax and Gisgo in North Africa and destroys their armies.
 
203 BCE: Scipio Africanus defeats a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal in North Africa.
 
203 BCE: Hannibal is recalled from Italy to defend Carthage against Scipio Africanus.
 
 
202 BCE: The Battle of Gaixia in which the Han forces defeat the Chu.
 
 
202 BCE: The Battle of Gaixia, Chu forces defeated by the Han.
 
202 BCE: Battle of Zama: Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal, ending the Second Punic War.
 
 
200 BCE: Beginning of the Greco-Bactrian conquests in India.
 
200 BCE - 196 BCE: Second Macedonian War: Roman victory.
 
197 BCE: Romans are victorious over Philip V of Macedon at Cynoscephalae.
 
194 BCE: Romans defeat Antiochus III at Battle of Magnesia.
 
193 BCE: The Boii are defeated by the Romans, suffering, according to Livy, 14,000 dead.
 
190 BCE: Battle of Magnesia ad Sipylum, disastrous defeat for Antiochos III against Romans.
 
186 BCE: Demetrios wins a decisive battle in Gandhara, beginning the Yona (or Greek era) in India.
 
 
172 BCE - 168 BCE: Third Macedonian War: Perseus of Macedon challenges Rome and is defeated.
 
 
168 BCE: Rome defeats Macedon at Battle of Pydna.
 
168 BCE: Romans defeat Perseus of Macedon at Pydna.
 
165 BCE: The Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides invades India.
 
150 BCE: A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War.
 
150 BCE: The Lusitani are betrayed and slaughtered by the Romans.
 
149 BCE - 146 BCE: Third Punic War.
 
149 BCE: Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage.
 
148 BCE: The Roman siege of Carthage, in its second year, remains unsuccessful.
 
 
147 BCE: Viriathus leads the Lusitani in victory against the Romans.
 
147 BCE: Scipio Africanus the Younger takes over command of the siege of Carthage and builds a mole to block its harbour.
 
 
146 BCE: Rome sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league. Greece is ruled by Rome.
 
 
146 BCE: Viriathus leads the Lusitani to a second victory against a Roman army, capturing Segobriga in Spain.
 
146 BCE: Scipio Africanus the Younger sacks Carthage and enslaves its population.
 
 
146 BCE: End of the Third Punic War. Carthage is destroyed and its lands become the Roman province Africa.
 
141 BCE: Persis passes from Seleucid to Parthian domination.
 
133 BCE: Rome captures Numantia. End of Iberian resistance.
 
133 BCE - 123 BCE: Magadha king Vasumitra defeats the Indo-Greeks at the banks of the Indus.
 
 
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
 
 
117 BCE - 100 BCE: Han emperors extend the western part of the Great Wall of China.
 
113 BCE: Romans defeated at Noreia by the Cimbri.
 
 
109 BCE: Chinese Han Empire conquers the kingdom of Tien.
 
 
108 BCE: Wiman Joseon is conquered by the Han dynasty.
 
107 BCE - 100 BCE: Gaius Marius reforms the Roman army.
 
 
104 BCE - 101 BCE: The War of the Heavenly Horses, general Li Guangli forces the city of Da Yuan (Alexandria Eschate) into tributary status.
 
100 BCE: Roman cavalry riders are by now classified as auxilia and organised in wings or alae.
 
88 BCE - 63 BCE: Mithridates of Pontus fights three wars to free Greece from Rome.
 
 
86 BCE: The Roman general Sulla sacks Athens and the port of Piraeus.
 
 
82 BCE - 80 BCE: Volterra is besieged and sacked by Roman general Sulla.
 
 
69 BCE: Licinius Lucullus leads a Roman army which defeats Armenian king Tigranes II and his capital Tigranocerta is captured. Artashat becomes the capital again.
 
 
67 BCE: Pompey assembles a naval fleet and attacks Pamphylia and Cilicia, principally to repress piracy.
 
 
66 BCE: Pompey the Great attacks the Armenian kingdom of Tigranes II and makes it a Roman protectorate.
 
 
63 BCE: The Roman general Pompey defeats the Seleucid Antiochus XIII and incorporates Syria as a province of the Roman empire.
 
 
58 BCE - 51 BCE: Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
 
 
58 BCE: Caesar attacks the Helvetii while on migration and defeats them.
 
57 BCE: A Roman army under Caesar narrowly defeats an army of Nervii, Atrebates, and Viromandui.
 
56 BCE: The navies of Rome and the Veneti Gauls clash resulting in a Roman victory. This is the first recorded naval battle in the Atlantic Ocean.
 
 
55 BCE: Marcus Licinius Crassus is made consul for the second time and departs on campaign in Parthia.
 
 
55 BCE - 54 BCE: Julius Caesar's expeditions in Britain.
 
53 BCE: Battle of Carrhae. Crassus is captured and executed by the Parthians.
 
 
53 BCE: Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus compels Armenia to provide troops for his campaigns against Parthia.
 
52 BCE: Caesar defeated at Gergovia by Vercingetorix.
 
 
52 BCE: After becoming trapped and besieged at Alesia, Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar.
 
51 BCE: Caesar's siege and capture of Uxellodunum ends the Gallic War.
 
49 BCE: Julius Caesar besieges Massilia.
 
38 BCE: Octavian amasses a naval fleet to defeat Sextus Pompey.
 
36 BCE: Agrippa defeats the naval fleet of Sextus Pompey in the battle of Naulochos.
 
31 BCE: The Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
 
 
27 BCE - 19 BCE: Cantabrian Wars: Roman conquest of the Iberian Penninsula.
 
 
6 CE: Augustus creates the aerarium militare, a treasury drawn from taxes in order to fund a professional army.
 
 
9 CE: The Rhine River is established as the boundary between the Latin and German speaking worlds, following the defeat of the Roman army, under the command of Varus, at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
 
15 CE: Germanicus leads 12,000 men across the Rhine to attack the Chatti.
 
 
23 CE: The sack of Chang'an, imperial capital of China.
 
 
43 CE - 47 CE: Romans conquer South Britain and claim the territory as part of Roman Empire.
 
43 CE: Claudius commences the Roman conquest of Britain.
 
 
52 CE: Parthian king Vologases I invades Armenia.
 
 
54 CE - 60 CE: Roman general Corbulo successfully campaigns in Armenia.
 
 
58 CE - 63 CE: Roman-Parthian War.
 
 
60 CE - 61 CE: Boudicca's Revolt in Britain.
 
 
70 CE: The city of Jerusalem is besieged and captured by Rome; the Second Temple destroyed.
 
 
75 CE - 77 CE: Romans defeat the last of the Northern tribes; Roman conquest of Britain complete.
 
 
83 CE: The Battle of Mons Graupius in which Agricola defeats Calgacus of the Picts.
 
100 CE: By the end of first century CE, Scythians (Shakas) manage to establish their sway in central and south-eastern India.
 
 
101 CE - 106 CE: Trajan conquers Dacia.
 
106 CE - 130 CE: The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Shatakarni defeats the Shakas and establishes his empire centred in present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.
 
 
114 CE: Roman emperor Trajan annexes Armenia and declares war on Parthia.
 
127 CE - 150 CE: The Kushana emperor Kanishka conquers Kashmir, defeats Parthians, reaching the kingdom of Magadha. He crosses the Pamir mountains and defeats the Chinese under General Pan Yang and annexes Kashgar, Khotan and Yarkand.
 
161 CE - 166 CE: Parthian Wars with Rome; Lucius Verus commands Rome's forces in the field.
 
165 CE - 195 CE: The Satavahana king Yajnashri Shatakarni uses his navy to subdue seafaring peoples on the eastern coast.
 
167 CE - 180 CE: Marcomannic Wars.
 
 
189 CE: Luoyang, the Han capital, is sacked by the Chinese warlord Dong Zhuo.
 
 
192 CE: Emperor Commodus is murdered, civil war ensues (until 197 CE).
 
195 CE: First Parthian war.
 
197 CE - 198 CE: Second Parthian war.
 
 
224 CE: Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
 
 
224 CE - 240 CE: Reign of Ardashir I who founds Sassanian Empire and reorganizes the military drawing on all the models of the past and present.
 
 
224 CE - 651 CE: Under the Sassanian Empire, the Persian military becomes the greatest fighting force in the ancient world, repeatedly defeating Roman Empire.
 
 
232 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
 
293 CE: Emperor Carausius assassinated by Allectus.
 
 
304 CE: The nomadic Xiongu break through the Great Wall of China.
 
 
312 CE: Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.
 
 
324 CE: Constantine I defeats Licinius at Chrysopolis.
 
335 CE - 380 CE: Regarded as the "Indian Napoleon", the Gupta emperor Samudragupta, ruling from Magadha, subdues kings in nearly all corners of India and annexes kingdoms adjacent to Magadha.
 
 
367 CE: Picts, Scots, Saxons, and Franks attack the Roman Empire.
 
395 CE - 400 CE: The Gupta emperor Chandragupta II Vikramaditya defeats Shakas and thereby gains access to the commercially important seaports on the western coast.
 
402 CE: Alaric invades Italy.
 
408 CE: Alaric I the Visigoth besieges Rome. As ransom, Rome pays 5,000 pounds of gold, 30,000 pounds of silver, 4,000 silken tunics, 3,000 hides dyed scarlet, and 3,000 pounds of pepper.
 
 
410 CE: Alaric sacks Rome.
 
 
410 CE - 413 CE: The Theodosian Walls are built to better protect Constantinople.
 
 
410 CE: The Romans withdraw from Britain.
 
 
450 CE: India is invaded by the White Huns across the Hindu Kush.
 
455 CE: Vandals sack Rome.
 
455 CE - 457 CE: The Gupta emperor Skandagupta Kramaditya defeats the Huns.
 
 
468 CE: A Byzantine army led by Basiliscus is defeated by the Vandals in North Africa.
 
484 CE - 510 CE: The Huns conquer western and central India and fight a battle with the Guptas. The Gupta general Goparaja dies in the encounter.
 
 
486 CE: Clovis of the Franks defeats the Romans in Gaul. Founding of the Frankish kingdom.
 
 
488 CE - 493 CE: Theodoric the Great of the Ostrogoths conquers Italy.
 
 
493 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds the Long Wall in Thrace to protect Constantinople.
 
 
504 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I retakes the fortress of Amida on the Persian frontier.
 
 
505 CE - 507 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds a new fortress at Anastasiopolis (Dara) on the frontier with Persia.
 
 
507 CE: Clovis defeats the Visigoths and drives them into the Iberian peninsula.
 
 
507 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I sends Childeric, the king of the Franks in Gaul, a fleet to aid his war with the Ostrogoths.
 
510 CE - 540 CE: The Huns are defeated by King Baladitya of Magadha and later by King Yashodharman of Malwa.
 
 
534 CE: Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
 
 
536 CE - 562 CE: The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
 
 
554 CE: Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
 
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
 
 
612 CE: Goguryeo general Eulji Mundeok wins a great victory against the Chinese Sui at the battle of the Salsu River.
 
618 CE: The Vatapi Chalukya king Pulakeshin II defeats Emperor Harshavardhana of Sthanishvara-Kanyakubja on the banks of the Narmada river.
 
 
627 CE: Byzantine emperor Heraclius wins a crushing victory over the Persian army at Nineveh.
 
635 CE: The Vatapi Chalukya king Pulakeshin II destroys the navy of the Konkan Mauryas off the coast of Elephanta island (near present-day Mumbai).
 
 
636 CE: A Byzantine army is crushed by an Arab force at the battle of Yarmuk.
 
640 CE - 649 CE: Taizong's military campaigns in the Tarim Basin which is annexed to China.
 
 
642 CE: Byzantine Alexandria falls to the Arab Caliphate.
 
642 CE: The Pallava king Narasimhavarman conquers Vatapi. Pulakeshin II dies defending his city.
 
 
644 CE: A Goguryeo army defeats a combined Silla and Tang army.
 
 
646 CE: The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.
 
 
649 CE: The Arab Caliphate attacks Byzantine Cyprus.
 
 
651 CE: Sassanian Empire falls to invading Muslim Arabs; Persian army and navy are disbanded.
 
 
654 CE: Byzantine Crete, Kos and Rhodes fall to the Arab Caliphate.
 
 
655 CE: A Byzantine fleet is destroyed by the Arab Caliphate off the coast of Lycia.
 
 
659 CE: A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Caliphate.
 
 
660 CE: The Baekje kingdom in Korea falls to a joint Silla and Chinese Tang Dynasty army and naval attack.
 
 
661 CE: A Tang Dynasty army unsuccessfully besieges the Goguryeo capital of Pyongyang.
 
 
668 CE: The Goguryeo kingdom of northern Korea collapses following an attack by the Tang Dynasty of China.
 
 
674 CE - 678 CE: The Arab Umayyad Caliphate unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
 
 
675 CE: A Silla army defeats a Tang force at the battles of Maesosong.
 
 
676 CE: A Silla army defeats a Tang force at the battle of Kibolpo, thus gaining control of the whole Korean peninsula.
 
 
678 CE: First recorded use of Greek Fire in Byzantine warfare during the Arab siege of Constantinople.
 
 
680 CE: A Byzantine naval fleet is defeated by the Bulgars.
 
 
705 CE: Justinian II besieges Constantinople and reinstates himself as Byzantine emperor, removing the usurper Tiberios III.
 
 
709 CE: Byzantine Tyana in Cappadocia is lost to the Arabs.
 
 
712 CE: Muslim general Muhammed bin Quasim conquers northern India.
 
712 CE: An Arab invasion takes place under Mohammad bin Qasim (695 - 715 CE). He conquers Sindh (now in Pakistan).
 
 
717 CE - 718 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack an Arab fleet besieging Constantinople.
 
 
726 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III wins a battle against the Arabs at Nicaea.
 
 
732 CE: Balhae attacks by sea the Chinese port of Dengzhou.
 
738 CE: The Chalukya rulers of Gujarat decisively defeat the Arabs.
 
 
740 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III wins a decisive victory over the Arabs at the battle of Akroinon.
 
 
746 CE - 752 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V conducts successful campaigns in northern Syria and Armenia.
 
750 CE - 1000 CE: A struggle for the control of most of the Indian subcontinent takes place among three empires: the Pratiharas, the Palas and the Rashtrakutas. No one power emerges triumphant.
 
 
756 CE - 775 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V wins a string of military victories against the Bulgars.
 
 
790 CE - 1100 CE: The Viking Age.
 
 
800 CE - 1876 CE: Samurai active in Japanese warfare.
 
 
814 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian defeats a Bulgar army near Mesembria.
 
 
821 CE - 823 CE: Thomas the Slav unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
 
 
821 CE - 822 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack a Slav fleet besieging Constantinople.
 
 
830 CE - 831 CE: Byzantine emperor Theophilos wins victories in Cilica and awards himself a triumph.
 
 
833 CE: Byzantine emperor Theophilos builds the Sarkel fortress on the Don river.
 
 
838 CE: The Arab Caliphate defeats a Byzantine army and captures the cities of Ankara and Amorion.
 
 
839 CE: The Byzantine empire loses Taranto in southern Italy to the western Arabs.
 
 
843 CE: The Tang empire attacks and kills 10,000 Uyghur tribespeople in Inner Mongolia.
 
 
856 CE: The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.
 
894 CE: Symeon, Tsar of the Bulgars, invades Thrace, then Byzantine territory.
 
 
902 CE: Byzantine Taormina on Sicily falls to Arab attacks.
 
 
904 CE: Leo of Tripoli leads an Arab force which sacks Byzantine Thessaloniki and Abydos.
 
 
905 CE: A Byzantine army sacks Arab-held Tarsus.
 
 
907 CE: Oleg, Prince of Kiev, attacks the Byzantine capital Constantinople.
 
 
912 CE: A Byzantine fleet is destroyed by an Arab force off the coast of Chios.
 
 
934 CE: A Byzantine army captures Melitene in Cappadocia.
 
 
941 CE: Greek Fire is used by Romanos I's fleet against a Russian fleet attacking Constantinople.
 
 
943 CE: A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas captures the border Mesopotamians fortresses of Nisibis, Dara, Amida, and Martyropolis.
 
 
944 CE: A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas besieges Edessa. The Mandylion icon is taken to Constantinople
 
 
949 CE: Battle of Takkolam in which the Cholas were utterly routed by the Rashtrakutas.
 
 
965 CE: Byzantine forces are defeated and forced out of Sicily by Muslim troops.
 
 
969 CE: Byzantine forces recapture the city of Antioch from the Arabs.
 
 
972 CE: Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces uses Greek Fire to take the Bulgar capital of Preslav, then in Russian hands.
 
985 CE - 1014 CE: In southern India, Raja Raja I Chola conquers parts of the present-day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Karnataka (north-western areas), northern Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
 
 
986 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II suffers a terrible defeat to Samuel the Bulgar at Trajan's Gate.
 
988 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II uses a force of Varangians for the first time.
 
991 CE: Turkic forces under Sultan Sabuktigin defeat a confederacy of north Indian rulers in Jalalabad (present-day Afghanistan).
 
994 CE: Raja Raja I Chola destroys the fleet of the Later Chera/Kulashekhara king Bhaskara Ravivarman I off Kandalur Salai (modern day Valiasala).
 
 
995 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Syria against the Fatimids.
 
 
997 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II reconquers Greece from Samuel the Bulgar.
 
 
1004 CE: Treaty of Shanyuan which brings peace between the Liao dynasty and Song dynasty of China with the latter compelled to pay annual tribute.
 
1008 CE: Turkic forces under Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni defeat a confederacy of north Indian rulers at Waihind (near Peshawar, present-day Pakistan).
 
 
1014 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins final victory against Samuel the Bulgar at Kleidion.
 
1014 CE - 1044 CE: Rajendra I Chola completes the conquests of present-day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. His armies march across north India making conquests, and his navy conquers areas in Southeast Asia.
 
 
1021 CE - 1022 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Armenia and Georgia.
 
 
1044 CE: Defeat to the Xia state results in China's Song dynasty paying tribute.
 
1052 CE: Battle of Koppam where the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani kill the Chola King Rajadhiraja on his elephant. His younger brother Prince Rajendra II gets crowned on the battlefield, assumes command and defeats the enemy.
 
 
1066 CE: Harald Hardrada of the Vikings killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge; accepted date of the end of the Viking Age.
 
 
1081 CE - 1082 CE: The Normans, led by Robert Guiscard, attack Byzantine Greece.
 
 
1082 CE: Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos grants trade access and privileges to the Venetians in return for naval support.
 
 
1084 CE: The Normans defeat a Venetian naval force, allies of the Byzantine Empire.
 
 
1085 CE: Alexios I Komnenos recaptures Dyracchion from the Normans.
 
 
1087 CE - 1090 CE: The Pechenegs attack Byzantine Thrace.
 
 
1091 CE: A Byzantine army, with Cumans as allies, defeats the Pechenegs at the battle of Mount Lebounion.
 
 
1097 CE: The First Crusaders capture Nicaea.
 
 
1098 CE: The First Crusaders capture Antioch after an 8-month siege.
 
 
1107 CE: The Normans, led by Bohemund, besiege Dyracchion.
 
 
1108 CE: The Treaty of Devol is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans, removing any Norman threat from the empire's territory.
 
 
1122 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Pechenegs in the Balkans.
 
 
1125 CE: The Jin state attacks Song China.
 
 
1125 CE: The Jurchen Jin state invades Song China necessitating the latter to move south and form the Southern Song dynasty.
 
 
1130 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Danishmendids in Asia Minor.
 
 
1133 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos celebrates a triumph in Constantinople after five successful campaigns in Asia Minor.
 
 
1137 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos conquers the Rubenids in Armenia and occupies the capital at Anazarbos.
 
 
1138 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos besieges and takes the city of Shaizar in Syria.
 
 
1141 CE: A peace treaty is signed betwwen the (southern) Song Dynasty and Jin state.
 
 
1144 CE - 1146 CE: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos wins victories in Cilicia, Syria and Asia Minor.
 
 
1149 CE: A fleet led by George of Antioch attacks Constantinople.
 
 
1155 CE - 1157 CE: The Byzantines unsuccessfully invade southern Italy.
 
 
1176 CE: A Byzantine army is ambushed by the Seljuks at the battle of Myriokephalon in Phyrgia.
 
 
1192 CE: Battle of Tarain when, effectively employing horse archers, the Turkic armies of Shahabuddin Mohammad of Ghur destroy the Rajput armies of Prithviraja III Chauhan.
 
 
1205 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
1205 CE - 1255 CE: Life of the Mongol military commander and grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu Khan.
 
1206 CE - 1368 CE: The Mongol Empire rules in Central and East Asia.
 
 
1206 CE - 1227 CE: Reign of Genghis Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1209 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
 
1209 CE: The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
 
 
1211 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
 
1212 CE - 1215 CE: The Mongols attack Song China, sacking over 90 cities.
 
 
1214 CE: The Jurchen Jin state signs a short-lived peace treaty with the Mongol Empire and is obliged to pay tribute.
 
 
1215 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
 
1215 CE: The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
 
 
1215 CE: The Mongols sack Beijing.
 
 
1218 CE - 1220 CE: The Mongols attack the Khwarazm Empire in Central Asia.
 
 
1219 CE: A Goryeo army allies with the Mongols to attack the Khitan in northern Korea.
 
 
1221 CE: The Mongols attack northern Afghanistan.
 
 
1222 CE: The Mongols defeat a Russian army at Kalka.
 
 
1229 CE - 1241 CE: Reign of Ogedei Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1230 CE - 1231 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin State.
 
 
1231 CE - 1232 CE: Ogedei Khan leads a Mongol invasion into Korea.
 
 
1233 CE: Kaifeng, capital of the Jurchen Jin State, falls after a lengthy siege by the Mongols.
 
 
1234 CE: The Mongols attack and conquer the Jurchen Jin State in northern China.
 
 
1235 CE: The Mongols invade northern Iraq and western Asia
 
 
1236 CE - 1242 CE: Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.
 
 
1237 CE: The city of Ryazan (Riazan) is besieged and captured by the Mongols.
 
 
1238 CE: The Mongols capture the city of Torshok.
 
 
1238 CE: The Mongols capture the city of Vladimir.
 
 
1238 CE: The Mongols invade Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.
 
 
1240 CE: The Mongols capture Kiev.
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Henry the Pious, the Duke of Silesia, near Liegnitz (Legnica).
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Bela IV, king of Hungary, at the Battle of Mohi.
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols capture Buda and Pest.
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols capture the great city of Gran (Esztergom) in Hungary.
 
 
1253 CE - 1260 CE: A Mongol army led by Hulegu invades Persia and the Middle East.
 
 
1256 CE: The Mongols defeat the Ismailis (aka the Assassins) in Persia.
 
 
1257 CE: The Mongols conquer the Dali kingdom in southern China.
 
 
1257 CE: The Mongols invade Vietnam.
 
 
1258 CE: An uprising restores the monarchy in Korea and makes peace with the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1258 CE: The Mongols conquer the Abbasid Caliphate. During this campaign there is the infamous sacking of Baghdad and murder of the caliph.
 
 
1259 CE: The Mongols besiege and capture Aleppo in Syria.
 
 
1260 CE - 1294 CE: Reign of Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1260 CE - 1264 CE: Kublai Khan fights a civil war with his brother Ariq Boke for control of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1262 CE: Kublai Khan captures Karakorum after his rival Ariq Boke (1219-1266 CE) used it as his base.
 
 
1268 CE: Kublai Khan resumes the Mongol attacks on Song Dynasty China.
 
 
1270 CE: Part of northern Korea is conquered by the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1273 CE: Xiangyang falls into Mongol hands.
 
 
1275 CE - 1279 CE: The Mongols led by Kublai Khan attack and conquer the last remnants of Song China.
 
 
1276 CE: Lin'an, the capital of the Song Dynasty, is captured by a Mongol army.
 
 
1277 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty invade Burma.
 
 
1279 CE: The Mongols complete their conquest of Song Dynasty China with victory at the naval battle at Yaishan.
 
 
1281 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China invade Vietnam for a second time.
 
 
1286 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Vietnam.
 
 
1287 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Burma.
 
 
1292 CE: A Mongol/Yuan Dynasty naval force attacks Java.
 
 
1345 CE - 1521 CE: The Aztec civilization flourishes in Mesoamerica.
 
 
1418 CE: Texcoco is temporarily conquered by Mexica and Tepanec forces.
 
 
1428 CE: The Triple Alliance is formed between Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan.
 
 
1438 CE: Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui defeats the Chancas to control the Cuzco Valley and further expand the Inca empire.
 
 
1450 CE: The Aztecs establish a garrison at Mitla in the Oaxaca Valley.
 
 
1470 CE: The Incas conquer the Chimu civilization based at Chan Chan.
 
 
1471 CE - 1493 CE: Reign of Inca Tupac Yupanqui who doubles the size of the Inca Empire.
 
1485 CE: The Stone of Tizoc is carved depicting the Aztec king Tizoc attacking warriors from the Matlatzinca.
 
 
1487 CE: The Templo Mayor is completed at Tenochtitlan and inaugurated with the sacrifice of 20,000 captives.
 
 
1493 CE - 1526 CE: Huayna Capac reigns as Inca leader and constructs fortresses, religious temples and roads throughout the empire.
 
1494 CE: Aztec leader Ahuitzotl conquers the central valleys of Oaxaca.
 
1499 CE: Aztec leader Ahuitzotl conquers the Soconusco region.
 
1507 CE: The Throne of Motecuhzoma II is carved. Also known as the Monument of Sacred War.
 
 
1521 CE: Texcoco provided ships and men to aide the Spanish siege of Tenochtitlan.
 
 
1521 CE: The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan falls into the hands of spanish forces led by Cortes.
 
 
1526 CE - 1532 CE: Civil war between the Inca leaders Waskar and Atahualpa. Atahualpa wins.
 
1530 CE: The Inca empire reaches its greatest extent.
 
 
1532 CE: Battle of Cajamarca where the Inca leader Atahualpa is captured and held for ransom by Spanish forces led by Pizarro.
 
 
1533 CE: Pizarro takes the Inca capital of Cuzco.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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