Phoenicia Timeline

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4000 BCE 3500 BCE 3000 BCE 2500 BCE 2000 BCE 1500 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE  
4000 BCE: Founding of the city of Sidon.
4000 BCE - 3000 BCE: Trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.
2900 BCE - 2300 BCE: First settlement of Baalbek.
2750 BCE: The city of Tyre is founded.
1250 BCE - 1200 BCE: Destruction of many Canaanite towns hints at a probable invasion of the Israelites into Canaan.
1200 BCE: Sea Peoples invade the Levant.
1200 BCE - 800 BCE: First wave of Phoenician colonization where largely trading-posts are founded throughout the Mediterranean.
1115 BCE - 1076 BCE: Reign of Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria who conquers Phoenicia and revitalizes the empire.
1110 BCE: Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Gades (Cadiz).
1101 BCE: Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Utica by Sidon (or Tyre).
1100 BCE: Phoenician alphabet.
1000 BCE: Ahiram becomes king of Sidon.
1000 BCE: Death of Ahiram (or Ahirom) of Byblos, whose sarcophagus bears the oldest inscription of the Phoenician alphabet.
1000 BCE: Height of Tyre's power.
969 BCE - 936 BCE: Hiram I reigns as king of Tyre.
820 BCE - 774 BCE: Pygmalion rules as king of Tyre.
814 BCE: Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Carthage by Tyre.
800 BCE - 600 BCE: Second stage of Phoenician colonization where trading-posts become full colonies throughout the Mediterranean.
750 BCE: Phoenicians found the colony of Motya on Sicily.
700 BCE: Corinthians adopt the trireme from the Phoenicians.
351 BCE: Artaxerxes III sacks Sidon.
334 BCE: Alexander the Great sacks Baalbek and renames it Heliopolis.
333 BCE: Alexander the Great sacks Sidon.
332 BCE: Alexander the Great besieges and conquers Tyre.
301 BCE - 195 BCE: Tyre, as all other Phoenician cities, belongs to the Ptolemies, rulers of hellenistic Egypt.
274 BCE - 271 BCE: The first Syrian war, marking the beginning of the contest between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids for Phoenicia and Coele-Syria.
195 BCE: After the battle at Panion, the Seleucids finally take the rule of Phoenicia from the Ptolemies. Tyre and the other Phoenician cities will remain in the Seleucid power until the Roman conquest of Syria.
64 BCE: Tyre becomes a Roman colony.
38 BCE: Parts of Cilicia and Chalcis are given to Cleopatra; later, she is allowed to govern, as vassal, parts of Phoenicia, Judaea (cordial relations with king Herod), Cyrenaica, and Crete.
4000 BCE 3500 BCE 3000 BCE 2500 BCE 2000 BCE 1500 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE

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