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Islam Timeline

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  • 570
    Muhammad is born in Mecca.
  • 610
    Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
  • 622
    Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.
  • 624
    Battle of Badr: Muhammad's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
  • 625
    Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.
  • 627
    Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.
  • 627
    Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold.
  • 628
    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad's Muslims and the people of Mecca.
  • 628
    Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
  • 629
    First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
  • 629
    Battle of Mu'tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.
  • 630
    Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.
  • 630
    Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.
  • 630
    Attempted Siege of Ta'if: Muhammad's forces are initially unable to siege Ta'if and convert its people to Islam.
  • 632
    "Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage": This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.
  • 632
    Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
  • 632 - 634
    Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 634 - 644
    Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 637
    Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
  • 637
    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • 644 - 656
    Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • c. 650
    Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Quran while destroying the others.
  • 656 - 661
    Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • Mar 670
    Hasan ibn Ali, Shia Islam's second imam (his father, Ali ibn Abi Talib, being the first imam), is poisoned to death.
  • Oct 680
    Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
  • 750
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • 750
    Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 754 - 775
    Reign of Al-Mansur over the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 756
    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 756 - 788
    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 777
    Zaragoza invites Charlemagne into Spain.
  • 783
    The city of Zaragoza falls to forces from the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 784
    Abd al-Rahman I begins construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
  • 788
    Death of Abd al-Rahman I of the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 1031
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba.
  • 1313 - 1341
    Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.

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