Islam Timeline

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  • 570 CE
    Muhammad is born in Mecca.
  • 610 CE
    Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
  • 622 CE
    Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.
  • 624 CE
    Battle of Badr: Muhammad's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
  • 625 CE
    Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.
  • 627 CE
    Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.
  • 627 CE
    Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold.
  • 628 CE
    Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
  • 628 CE
    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad's Muslims and the people of Mecca.
  • 629 CE
    Battle of Mu'tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.
  • 629 CE
    First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
  • 630 CE
    Attempted Siege of Ta'if: Muhammad's forces are initially unable to siege Ta'if and convert its people to Islam.
  • 630 CE
    Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.
  • 630 CE
    Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.
  • 632 CE
    "Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage": This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.
  • 632 CE - 634 CE
    Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 632 CE
    Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
  • 634 CE - 644 CE
    Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 637 CE
    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • 637 CE
    Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
  • 644 CE - 656 CE
    Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds 'Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • c. 650 CE
    Realizing several variations in Qur'ans throughout the Islamic Empire, 'Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Qur'an while destroying the others. Thus, the 'Uthman Qur'an Codex was created and is still the acceptable Qur'an used to this day.
  • 656 CE - 661 CE
    Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds 'Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • Mar 670 CE
    Hasan ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's second imam (his father, 'Ali, being the first imam), is poisoned to death
  • Oct 680 CE
    Husayn ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
  • c. 705 CE - c. 750 CE
    North Africa conquered by Arab invaders; populace converted to Islam.
  • 750 CE
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • 750 CE
    Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 754 CE - 775 CE
    Reign of Al-Mansur over the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 756 CE
    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 756 CE - 788 CE
    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 777 CE
    Zaragoza invites Charlemagne into Spain.
  • 783 CE
    The city of Zaragoza falls to forces from the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 784 CE
    Abd al-Rahman I begins construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
  • 788 CE
    Death of Abd al-Rahman I of the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 1031 CE
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba.
  • 1067 CE - 1071 CE
    Reign of Hu (aka Hawwa), regarded as the first king (or possibly queen) to adopt Islam in the Kingdom of Kanem.
  • 1295 CE
    Ghazan, ruler of the Ilkhanate, converts to Islam.
  • 1313 CE - 1341 CE
    Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.
  • c. 1400 CE - c. 1475 CE
    Borobudur is abandoned as Islam gains converts on the island of Java. .

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Legend:

500 CE 600 CE 700 CE 800 CE 900 CE 1000 CE 1100 CE 1200 CE 1300 CE 1400 CE  
 
 
570 CE: Muhammad is born in Mecca.
 
 
610 CE: Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
 
 
622 CE: Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.
 
 
624 CE: Battle of Badr: Muhammad's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
 
 
625 CE: Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.
 
 
627 CE: Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.
 
 
627 CE: Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold.
 
 
628 CE: Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
 
 
628 CE: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad's Muslims and the people of Mecca.
 
 
629 CE: Battle of Mu'tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.
 
 
629 CE: First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
 
 
630 CE: Attempted Siege of Ta'if: Muhammad's forces are initially unable to siege Ta'if and convert its people to Islam.
 
 
630 CE: Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.
 
 
630 CE: Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.
 
 
632 CE: "Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage": This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.
 
 
632 CE - 634 CE: Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
 
 
632 CE: Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
 
 
634 CE - 644 CE: 'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
 
 
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
 
 
637 CE: Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
 
 
644 CE - 656 CE: 'Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds 'Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
 
 
650 CE: Realizing several variations in Qur'ans throughout the Islamic Empire, 'Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Qur'an while destroying the others. Thus, the 'Uthman Qur'an Codex was created and is still the acceptable Qur'an used to this day.
 
 
656 CE - 661 CE: 'Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds 'Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
 
 
670 CE: Hasan ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's second imam (his father, 'Ali, being the first imam), is poisoned to death
 
 
680 CE: Husayn ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
 
705 CE - 750 CE: North Africa conquered by Arab invaders; populace converted to Islam.
 
 
750 CE: Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
 
 
750 CE: Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
 
754 CE - 775 CE: Reign of Al-Mansur over the Abbasid Caliphate.
 
 
756 CE: Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
 
 
756 CE - 788 CE: Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.
 
 
777 CE: Zaragoza invites Charlemagne into Spain.
 
 
783 CE: The city of Zaragoza falls to forces from the Emirate of Cordoba.
 
 
784 CE: Abd al-Rahman I begins construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
 
788 CE: Death of Abd al-Rahman I of the Emirate of Cordoba.
 
1031 CE: Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba.
 
 
1067 CE - 1071 CE: Reign of Hu (aka Hawwa), regarded as the first king (or possibly queen) to adopt Islam in the Kingdom of Kanem.
 
 
1295 CE: Ghazan, ruler of the Ilkhanate, converts to Islam.
 
1313 CE - 1341 CE: Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.
 
1400 CE - 1475 CE: Borobudur is abandoned as Islam gains converts on the island of Java. .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
500 CE 600 CE 700 CE 800 CE 900 CE 1000 CE 1100 CE 1200 CE 1300 CE 1400 CE

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