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1200 BCE: Ionian migrations into the region around Ephesos.
550 BCE - 430 BCE: Construction of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
547 BCE: Anatolia conquered by the Persians. Ephesos remains neutral.
500 BCE - 475 BCE: Approximate time of Heraclitus' life.
356 BCE: The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus is destroyed by a deliberate fire.
355 BCE - 330 BCE: The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus is rebuilt/restored.
334 BCE: Ephesos liberated from Persian rule by Alexander the Great.
320 BCE: Ephesos renamed Arsineia by Lysimachus following Alexander the Great's death.
300 BCE - 290 BCE: Theatre of Ephesos constructed.
281 BCE: City is re-founded as Ephesos.
129 BCE: Ephesos becomes part of the Roman Empire.
88 BCE: Mithridates Rebellion and massacre of Latin speaking Ephesians by Sulla.
17 CE: Earthquake destroys much of Ephesos.
60 CE - 130 CE: Life of the physician Soranus of Ephesos.
70 CE: The rise of Christianity contributes to the cultural and physical decline of the city of Ephesos.
114 CE: The Library of Celsus at Ephesos commissioned by Tiberius Julius Acquila.
117 CE: The Library of Celsus at Ephesos completed.
138 CE: Temple dedicated to Hadrian built in Ephesos.
262 CE: The Library of Celsus at Ephesos destroyed by fire during invasion by the Goths.
267 CE: The Goths plunder and destroy the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.
401 CE: The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus is destroyed by a Christian mob.