171 BCE - 132 BCE: Ctesiphon is founded in the reign of Mithridates I (the Great) of Parthia.
58 BCE - 57 BCE: Ctesiphon becomes Parthian capital during the reign of Orodes II.
197 CE: Ctesiphon sacked by Septimus Severus and left in ruin.
224 CE - 240 CE: Ctesiphon rebuilt during the reign of Ardashir I; becomes capital of Sassanian Empire.
233 CE: The Battle of Ctesiphon; Sassanian army defeats invading Roman forces.
262 CE - 266 CE: Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
637 CE: Ctesiphon falls to invading Muslim Arab armies; afterwards its materials are used to build Baghdad.
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