To navigate the timeline, click and drag it with your mouse, or click on the timeline overview on the bottom.
337 BCE: Philip II of Macedonia marries Cleopatra Eurydice.
336 BCE: Marriage of Olympias' brother Alexander to her daughter Cleopatra.
102 BCE: Cleopatra II of Egypt sends her treasury to Kos.
69 BCE - 30 BCE: Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
51 BCE - 30 BCE: 300 Celts serve as elite bodyguards for Cleopatra VII during her reign.
51 BCE: Death of Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII Auletes.
51 BCE: Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler.
49 BCE: Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by both Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great.
48 BCE: Cleopatra tries to return, but her army is defeated near Pelusium.
48 BCE: Caesar arrives in Egypt and orders Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband their armies, but instead, war breaks out.
48 BCE - 44 BCE: Julius Caesar of Rome and Cleopatra VII of Egypt in unofficial alliance.
48 BCE: Caesar defeats Pompey (battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII.
47 BCE: Ptolemy XIII drowns in the Nile fleeing Caesar.
47 BCE: Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
47 BCE: Birth of Cleopatra's son, named Caesarion; Caesar is said to be the father.
46 BCE: Cleopatra VII and her young son Caesarion visit Rome, residing in Julius Caesar's villa; Caesar dedicates a temple to Venus Genetrix with a controversial statue of Cleopatra as Isis-Venus within.
46 BCE: Ptolemy XIV is recognized as Cleopatra's co-ruler again; the two are in Rome.
44 BCE: Julius Caesar is killed; Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV return to Egypt, where Ptolemy is soon killed and Caesarion recognized as king; first of a series of bad harvests.
43 BCE: Cleopatra gains control of Cyprus; she supports the faction of Caesar, led by the Second Triumvirate (Marc Antony, Octavian, Lepidus), in its war against the assassins, led by Brutus and Cassius.
41 BCE: Cleopatra and Mark Antony meet at Tarsus.
41 BCE: Cleopatra meets Marc Antony in Tarsus. The Roman needs the Egyptian queen in his war against the Parthian Empire, and returns the rule of old Ptolemaic territories to her.
41 BCE - 31 BCE: Mark Antony of Rome allied with Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
40 BCE: Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II are born.
38 BCE: Parts of Cilicia and Chalcis are given to Cleopatra; later, she is allowed to govern, as vassal, parts of Phoenicia, Judaea (cordial relations with king Herod), Cyrenaica, and Crete.
37 BCE: Cleopatra VII and her son Caesarion meet Mark Antony in Antioch.
36 BCE: Mark Antony gives Crete as a gift to Cleopatra.
34 BCE: The Donations of Alexandria, an elaborate coronation ceremony in which Caesarion and Alexander Helios were named King of Kings and their mother Cleopatra VII was named Queen of Kings, took place in the Egyptian capital.
31 BCE: Mark Antony and Cleopatra move to Greece, where they are isolated by Octavian's admiral Agrippa; although they are able to win a tactical victory and break out of their isolated position at Actium, the campaign is a distaster and Octavian is able to achieve control of the east.
31 BCE: Cleopatra flees to Alexandria and opens negotiations with Octavian; her purpose is to save her children and keep the Ptolemaic kingdom intact.
31 BCE: Hamaxia supplies wood for Cleopatra's fleet in the Battle of Actium.
31 BCE: The Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
30 BCE: Death of Cleopatra VII, end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt.
30 BCE: After Octavian has declined to negotiate, Cleopatra reportedly commits suicide; Mark Antony stabs himself, only later finding Cleopatra still lives, and dies.
30 BCE: Cleopatra kills herself rather than be taken to Rome by Octavian. Her son Caesarion is later executed and her children with Antony taken to Rome.