Celt Timeline

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  • c. 1400 BCE
    The beginning of Celtic culture in the upper Danube region of central Europe.
  • c. 900 BCE
    Celtic Migration begins in Europe with many Celts landing in Scotland.
  • c. 800 BCE - c. 600 BCE
    Early Iron Age Hallstatt culture flourishes across Europe.
  • c. 700 BCE
    Iron Age begins in Scotland.
  • 600 BCE
    Celts settle Iberia.
  • c. 500 BCE - 450 BCE
    Hallstatt kingdoms and chiefdoms suddenly collapse for reasons unclear.
  • c. 475 BCE
    Celts defeat the Etruscans at the Ticino River.
  • c. 450 BCE
    Rise of the Celtic La Tene culture.
  • 400 BCE
    Celts enter Italy and settle in the Po Valley.
  • 396 BCE
    Celts defeat an Etruscan army at the battle of Melpum. Afterwards the Celts heavily settle all over the Po Valley.
  • 391 BCE
    Senones besiege Clusium, an Etruscan city.
  • c. 390 BCE
    "Gallic Catastrophe:" Brennus of the Senones defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome.
  • 380 BCE
    Celtic groups, possibly from northern Italy and the eastern Alps, begin to raid Illyrian territories.
  • 367 BCE
    Livy mentions Celtic armies in Ancona and one such group moves against Rome once more.
  • 367 BCE
    Celtic mercenaries fight with the Spartans against Thebes.
  • 335 BCE
    Alexander the Great receives Celtic ambassadors in the Balkans.
  • 334 BCE
    Rome signs a peace treaty with the Senones tribe.
  • 323 BCE
    Alexander the Great receives Celtic delegations in Babylon.
  • 297 BCE
    Celts and Samnites join forces and defeat the Romans at Camertium.
  • c. 295 BCE
    In a battle lasting all day, Romans narrowly defeat a force of Celts and Samnites at Sentinum.
  • 285 BCE - 282 BCE
    Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
  • 285 BCE
    Roman forces heavily defeat the Senones at Lake Vadimo.
  • 284 BCE
    Gauls of the Insubres and Boii tribes defeat the Romans at Arretium.
  • 283 BCE
    Rome decisively defeats the Senones at Picenum.
  • 283 BCE
    Romans defeat the Etruscans and Celts at lake Vadimo.
  • 282 BCE
    A Celtic army with many youth among their ranks is again defeated by Romans.
  • 280 BCE
    Celts join with Pyrrhus, aiding in his victory over the Romans at Heraclea.
  • 279 BCE
    Celts stay with Pyrrhus and fight in the Epirote army at Asculum, a victory over the Romans.
  • 279 BCE
    Celts invade Thrace and Anatolia.
  • 277 BCE - 276 BCE
    4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.
  • 275 BCE
    Seleucids successfully defeat the Galatian Celts in the 'Elephant Battle'.
  • c. 263 BCE
    Antaros and 3000 Celts fight with Carthage in the First Punic War.
  • 261 BCE
    Antiochus, king of the Seleucid empire, is killed in battle against the Galatians at Ephesus in Asia Minor.
  • c. 260 BCE
    Timaeos is the first to use the term 'Celtiberian' when refering to Celts living in Iberia.
  • 259 BCE
    Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.
  • c. 237 BCE - 241 BCE
    Attalus I of Pergamon defeats the Galatians at the headwaters of the Caioc River.
  • 232 BCE
    Attalos I defeats the Galatians a second time.
  • 225 BCE
    Two Roman armies surround and defeat a Celtic army at Telamon.
  • 225 BCE
    Celts defeat 6000 Romans at Faesulae and proceed to overrun Etruria.
  • 223 BCE
    Romans successfully campaign against Celtic tribes of Cisalpine Gaul.
  • 222 BCE
    The Celts are defeated at Clastidium by Roman forces.
  • 218 BCE
    The Aegosages Celts enter Anatolia under Attalos of Pergamon.
  • 217 BCE
    Prusias of Bithynia in Asia Minor massacres the Aegosages including the women and children.
  • 217 BCE
    14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochos III.
  • c. 217 BCE - 218 BCE
    30,000 Celtic infantry and 4,000 Celtic cavalry join Hannibal. Celts constitute just over 50% of his army in Italy.
  • c. 215 BCE - c. 216 BCE
    The Boii crush a Roman army 25,000 strong at Litana. Victory was, in part, achieved by pushing precariously cut trees down atop the horrified Romans as they marched.
  • 212 BCE
    The Celtic kingdom of Tylis in Thrace is overthrown by native Thracians. Cavaros is the last ruler of the small kingdom.
  • 200 BCE - 100 BCE
    Oppida (Celtic fortified tribal centers) spread.
  • c. 200 BCE
    Iron in the Celtic world experiences a significant boom. Iron manufacturing increase in all facets of life such as weapon construction and agriculture items.
  • 193 BCE
    The Boii are defeated by the Romans, suffering, according to Livy, 14,000 dead.
  • 137 BCE
    4,000 Celtiberians trap a force of 20,000 Romans at Numantia forcing their surrender.
  • 133 BCE
    Numantia falls to the Romans who besiege the oppidum. Mass suicide ensues among many of the survivors. Land reforms by Tiberius Gracchus.
  • 125 BCE
    Rome intervenes on behalf of Massalia against the Saluvii Celts.
  • 106 BCE
    The governor of the Roman province of Macedonia, M. Minucius Rufus, celebrates his victory over a raid of the Dacians allied with the Celtic tribe of the Scordiscii in the Balkans.
  • 72 BCE
    Crixos, a Celt and second in command under Spartacus, is killed. 300 Romans are sacrificed in his honor.
  • 64 BCE
    Galatia becomes a client state of Rome.
  • c. 60 BCE
    Boii in eastern Europe crushed by the Dacians.
  • 58 BCE
    Caesar attacks the Helvetii while on migration and defeats them.
  • 57 BCE
    A Roman army under Caesar narrowly defeats an army of Nervii, Atrebates, and Viromandui.
  • 56 BCE
    The navies of Rome and the Veneti Gauls clash resulting in a Roman victory. This is the first recorded naval battle in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • 54 BCE - 53 BCE
    Ambiorix of the Eburones tribe destroys around 9,000 Roman soldiers at Atuatuca.
  • c. 51 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    300 Celts serve as elite bodyguards for Cleopatra VII during her reign.
  • 51 BCE
    Caesar's siege and capture of Uxellodunum ends the Gallic War.
  • 46 BCE
    The Bellovaci unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule in Belgica.
  • 44 BCE
    The Allobroges unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule in southern Gaul.
  • 33 BCE
    The Belgic Morini and the Celts of Aquitania unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule.
  • 4 BCE
    At the funeral of Herod II, his Celtic bodyguards are in attendance.

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Legend:

1400 BCE 1300 BCE 1200 BCE 1100 BCE 1000 BCE 900 BCE 800 BCE 700 BCE 600 BCE 500 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE 200 BCE 100 BCE  
 
1400 BCE: The beginning of Celtic culture in the upper Danube region of central Europe.
 
900 BCE: Celtic Migration begins in Europe with many Celts landing in Scotland.
 
800 BCE - 600 BCE: Early Iron Age Hallstatt culture flourishes across Europe.
 
 
700 BCE: Iron Age begins in Scotland.
 
600 BCE: Celts settle Iberia.
 
 
500 BCE - 450 BCE: Hallstatt kingdoms and chiefdoms suddenly collapse for reasons unclear.
 
475 BCE: Celts defeat the Etruscans at the Ticino River.
 
450 BCE: Rise of the Celtic La Tene culture.
 
400 BCE: Celts enter Italy and settle in the Po Valley.
 
 
396 BCE: Celts defeat an Etruscan army at the battle of Melpum. Afterwards the Celts heavily settle all over the Po Valley.
 
391 BCE: Senones besiege Clusium, an Etruscan city.
 
390 BCE: "Gallic Catastrophe:" Brennus of the Senones defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome.
 
 
380 BCE: Celtic groups, possibly from northern Italy and the eastern Alps, begin to raid Illyrian territories.
 
367 BCE: Livy mentions Celtic armies in Ancona and one such group moves against Rome once more.
 
367 BCE: Celtic mercenaries fight with the Spartans against Thebes.
 
335 BCE: Alexander the Great receives Celtic ambassadors in the Balkans.
 
 
334 BCE: Rome signs a peace treaty with the Senones tribe.
 
323 BCE: Alexander the Great receives Celtic delegations in Babylon.
 
297 BCE: Celts and Samnites join forces and defeat the Romans at Camertium.
 
295 BCE: In a battle lasting all day, Romans narrowly defeat a force of Celts and Samnites at Sentinum.
 
 
285 BCE - 282 BCE: Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
 
285 BCE: Roman forces heavily defeat the Senones at Lake Vadimo.
 
284 BCE: Gauls of the Insubres and Boii tribes defeat the Romans at Arretium.
 
283 BCE: Rome decisively defeats the Senones at Picenum.
 
283 BCE: Romans defeat the Etruscans and Celts at lake Vadimo.
 
282 BCE: A Celtic army with many youth among their ranks is again defeated by Romans.
 
280 BCE: Celts join with Pyrrhus, aiding in his victory over the Romans at Heraclea.
 
279 BCE: Celts stay with Pyrrhus and fight in the Epirote army at Asculum, a victory over the Romans.
 
 
279 BCE: Celts invade Thrace and Anatolia.
 
277 BCE - 276 BCE: 4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.
 
275 BCE: Seleucids successfully defeat the Galatian Celts in the 'Elephant Battle'.
 
263 BCE: Antaros and 3000 Celts fight with Carthage in the First Punic War.
 
 
261 BCE: Antiochus, king of the Seleucid empire, is killed in battle against the Galatians at Ephesus in Asia Minor.
 
260 BCE: Timaeos is the first to use the term 'Celtiberian' when refering to Celts living in Iberia.
 
 
259 BCE: Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.
 
237 BCE - 241 BCE: Attalus I of Pergamon defeats the Galatians at the headwaters of the Caioc River.
 
232 BCE: Attalos I defeats the Galatians a second time.
 
225 BCE: Two Roman armies surround and defeat a Celtic army at Telamon.
 
225 BCE: Celts defeat 6000 Romans at Faesulae and proceed to overrun Etruria.
 
223 BCE: Romans successfully campaign against Celtic tribes of Cisalpine Gaul.
 
222 BCE: The Celts are defeated at Clastidium by Roman forces.
 
218 BCE: The Aegosages Celts enter Anatolia under Attalos of Pergamon.
 
217 BCE: Prusias of Bithynia in Asia Minor massacres the Aegosages including the women and children.
 
 
217 BCE: 14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochos III.
 
217 BCE - 218 BCE: 30,000 Celtic infantry and 4,000 Celtic cavalry join Hannibal. Celts constitute just over 50% of his army in Italy.
 
215 BCE - 216 BCE: The Boii crush a Roman army 25,000 strong at Litana. Victory was, in part, achieved by pushing precariously cut trees down atop the horrified Romans as they marched.
 
212 BCE: The Celtic kingdom of Tylis in Thrace is overthrown by native Thracians. Cavaros is the last ruler of the small kingdom.
 
200 BCE - 100 BCE: Oppida (Celtic fortified tribal centers) spread.
 
200 BCE: Iron in the Celtic world experiences a significant boom. Iron manufacturing increase in all facets of life such as weapon construction and agriculture items.
 
193 BCE: The Boii are defeated by the Romans, suffering, according to Livy, 14,000 dead.
 
137 BCE: 4,000 Celtiberians trap a force of 20,000 Romans at Numantia forcing their surrender.
 
133 BCE: Numantia falls to the Romans who besiege the oppidum. Mass suicide ensues among many of the survivors. Land reforms by Tiberius Gracchus.
 
125 BCE: Rome intervenes on behalf of Massalia against the Saluvii Celts.
 
106 BCE: The governor of the Roman province of Macedonia, M. Minucius Rufus, celebrates his victory over a raid of the Dacians allied with the Celtic tribe of the Scordiscii in the Balkans.
 
72 BCE: Crixos, a Celt and second in command under Spartacus, is killed. 300 Romans are sacrificed in his honor.
 
64 BCE: Galatia becomes a client state of Rome.
 
60 BCE: Boii in eastern Europe crushed by the Dacians.
 
 
58 BCE: Caesar attacks the Helvetii while on migration and defeats them.
 
57 BCE: A Roman army under Caesar narrowly defeats an army of Nervii, Atrebates, and Viromandui.
 
56 BCE: The navies of Rome and the Veneti Gauls clash resulting in a Roman victory. This is the first recorded naval battle in the Atlantic Ocean.
 
54 BCE - 53 BCE: Ambiorix of the Eburones tribe destroys around 9,000 Roman soldiers at Atuatuca.
 
51 BCE - 30 BCE: 300 Celts serve as elite bodyguards for Cleopatra VII during her reign.
 
51 BCE: Caesar's siege and capture of Uxellodunum ends the Gallic War.
 
46 BCE: The Bellovaci unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule in Belgica.
 
44 BCE: The Allobroges unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule in southern Gaul.
 
33 BCE: The Belgic Morini and the Celts of Aquitania unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule.
 
4 BCE: At the funeral of Herod II, his Celtic bodyguards are in attendance.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1400 BCE 1200 BCE 1000 BCE 800 BCE 600 BCE 400 BCE 200 BCE

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