Umayyad Dynasty Timeline

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  • 656 CE - 661 CE
    The murder of Caliph Uthman causes the eruption of the First Fitna (civil war). Muawiya surfaces as a major opposer of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 661 CE - 750 CE
    The Umayyad Dynasty rules the Islamic empire.
  • 661 CE
    Muawiya, the governor of Syria, establishes the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 680 CE - 692 CE
    The Second Fitna (second Islamic civil war).
  • 680 CE
    Husayn's death marks the start of the second civil war of Islamic history (Second Fitna).
  • Oct 680 CE
    Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
  • 685 CE
    Al-Mukhtar starts his revolt; he joins hands withe Abdullah ibn Zubayr.
  • 687 CE
    Al-Mukhtar has a falling out with Abdullah, owing to his support to the Alid faction - he is killed by Zubayrid forces.
  • 711 CE - 714 CE
    Conquest of most of Spain by the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 712 CE
    Military conquests as far as the Beas river in parts of modern-day Pakistan by the Umayyad forces - under Muhammad ibn Qasim.
  • 713 CE
    Successful annexation of modern-day Transoxiana by Qutayba ibn Muslim.
  • 715 CE
    Sulayman rises to power; expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate is halted.
  • 717 CE - 718 CE
    An unsuccessful attempt to take over Constantinople; after Sulayman's death, his successor Umar II calls back the forces.
  • 743 CE - 747 CE
    The Third Fitna (civil war of the Islamic empire): Marwan II emerges as the victor.
  • 750 CE
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • 750 CE
    Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 756 CE
    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 756 CE - 788 CE
    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.

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