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632 CE - 634 CE: Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
632 CE - 633 CE: Ridda Wars (Wars of Apostacy): re-unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the banner of Islam.
634 CE - 644 CE: 'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
634 CE: Battle of Ajnadayn: Muslim invasion of Syria.
636 CE: Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Yarmouk.
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
638 CE: Umar distributes food during a famine in Arabia.
640 CE: Battle of Heliopolis. Byzantine forces defeated by Umar's general Amr ibn al-Aas.
641 CE: Arab Muslims under Caliph Umar take Alexandria from the Byzantine Christians.
644 CE - 656 CE: 'Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds 'Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
646 CE: The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.
717 CE - 718 CE: An unsuccessful attempt to take over Constantinople; after Sulayman's death, his successor Umar II calls back the forces.
915 CE: The autonomous Muslim leader Umar ibn Hafsun surrenders to the Umayyad forces of Abd al-Rahman III.
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