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753 BCE: The legendary founding date of Rome.
753 BCE - 510 BCE: Regal Period of ancient Rome from Founding to Birth of the Republic.
750 BCE - 510 BCE: The (semi-mythological) seven kings of Rome: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
750 BCE - 510 BCE: The semi-legendary celeres or trossuli - a 300-man cavalry corps which the first kings of Rome incorporated into the legion - is formed, later their number is increased to 600.
620 BCE: Posible founding date for Ostia, the port of Rome.
599 BCE - 500 BCE: The traditional date when the Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out.
578 BCE - 535 BCE: Servius Tullius, the king of Rome, increases the number of the cavalry corps (equites) to 1,800.
534 BCE - 510 BCE: Reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome.
510 BCE - 509 BCE: First treaty between Rome and Carthage.
509 BCE: Foundation of the Roman Republic.
508 BCE: Lars Porsenna, Etruscan king of Chiusi, lays siege to Rome.
504 BCE: Migration of Claudii from Sabine lands to Rome.
499 BCE: Battle of Lake Regillus between Rome and the Latin League.
498 BCE - 493 BCE: Rome defeats the Latins.
497 BCE: The first temple dedicated to Saturn is constructed in the Forum Romanum of Rome.
495 BCE: Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, dies in exile at Cumae.
495 BCE: A temple is built in honour of Mercury near Rome's Circus Maximus.
494 BCE: Traditional date the office of the tribuni plebis is created in Rome.
493 BCE: Foedus Cassianus - treaty by Spurius Cassius Vecellinus with the Latin League after the Battle of Lake Regillus.
484 BCE: The first temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux) is dedicated in Rome's Forum Romanum by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
451 BCE - 450 BCE: Decemvirate and Publication of Twelve Tables of Roman Law.
449 BCE: The Valerio-Horatian Laws establishes the tribal assemblies in Rome.
443 BCE: The position of censor is created in Rome.
437 BCE - 435 BCE: Rome defeats Etruscan Veii in the Veientine War; the Etruscan king Lars Tolumnius is killed.
431 BCE: The temple to Apollo Medicus is built in Rome.
400 BCE: Roman tale of mythical twins Romulus and Remus first recorded.
396 BCE: Rome sacks the Etruscan town of Veii after a ten-year siege.
396 BCE: Camillus is named Dictator of Rome for the first time.
394 BCE: Camillus accepts the surrender of the city of Falerii to Rome.
394 BCE: Etruscan Volsinii and their ally Sappinum unsuccessfully attacks Rome.
390 BCE: The Senone Tribe of Gaul sack Rome; Camillus mobilizes forces to defeat them and save the city. Hailed as "Second Romulus". .
390 BCE: Gauls sack Rome.
390 BCE: "Gallic Catastrophe:" Brennus of the Senones defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome.
389 BCE: Camillus is named Dictator of Rome a second time.
380 BCE: Rebuilding of Rome. Strong walls around the seven hills.
368 BCE: Camillus is named Dictator of Rome a third time; leads army to victory in battle.
367 BCE: Livy mentions Celtic armies in Ancona and one such group moves against Rome once more.
367 BCE - 529 CE: Worship of the goddess Isis spreads outside Egypt's borders to Greece and Rome.
367 BCE: Camillus is named Dictator of Rome for a fourth time; continues to lead armies to victory.
367 BCE: Position of aedile curule added for the patricians of Rome.
365 BCE: Camillus dies of the plague at Rome.
343 BCE - 341 BCE: First Samnite War (Rome vs. Samnites).
340 BCE - 338 BCE: Latin War, victory for Rome.
339 BCE: The leges Publilae decrees that one of Rome's two censors must be a plebeian.
334 BCE: Rome signs a peace treaty with the Senones tribe.
326 BCE - 304 BCE: Second Samnite War.
323 BCE - 30 BCE: The Egyptian Book of the Dead continues in popular use through the Ptolemaic Dynasty, the last to rule Egypt before the coming of Rome.
323 BCE - 30 BCE: Horus remains a popular deity during the Ptolemaic Dynasty, the last to rule over Egypt before the coming of Rome.
321 BCE: The Via Appia, a famous Roman road, is constructed.
312 BCE: Rome's first aqueduct constructed, the 16 km long Aqua Appia.
302 BCE: Rome intervenes to assist the ruling Cilnii clan at Arretium against a popular uprising.
298 BCE - 290 BCE: Third Samnite War. Victory for Rome, peace with the Etruscans.
298 BCE - 290 BCE: Third Samnite War between Rome and the Samnite people.
295 BCE: The first temple to Venus is dedicated on Rome's Aventine Hill.
295 BCE: Roman victory over Samnites, Gauls and Umbrians at Sentinum.
292 BCE: The Romans adopt the Greek god of medicine Asclepius by stealing his sacred snake from Epidaurus and setting up a temple on the Tiber Island.
287 BCE: The Lex Hotensia states that laws passed in Rome by the Concilium Plebis are binding to all people, even patricians.
285 BCE - 282 BCE: Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
283 BCE: Rome decisively defeats the Senones at Picenum.
280 BCE - 272 BCE: Roman war against Tarentum. Rome conquers Tarentum. Rome's dominance in lower Italy is secured.
273 BCE: Rome conquers the Etruscan town of Cerveteri.
273 BCE: Rome establishes a colony at Paestum.
272 BCE - 269 BCE: Rome's Anio Vetus aqueduct constructed.
270 BCE: Rome occupies Tarentum in Magna Graecia.
264 BCE - 241 BCE: First Punic War. Carthage cedes Sicily to Rome.
263 BCE: A shrine is dedicated to Minerva on the Aventine in Rome.
262 BCE: Rome besieges and sacks Agrigento on Sicily in one of the first actions of the First Punic War.
260 BCE: Rome builds a fleet of 120 ships in just 60 days to fight the First Punic War.
258 BCE: Rome wins a naval battle against Carthage at Sulcis during the First Punic War.
256 BCE: Rome lands an army of four legions on African soil at Clupea during the First Punic War.
256 BCE: Rome wins a land battle south of Tunis during the First Punic War.
249 BCE: Carthage defeats Rome in a naval battle at Drepanum during the First Punic War.
241 BCE - 238 BCE: The rebellion of the mercenaries: Unpaid mercenaries under the leadership of Mathos and Spendios rebel against Carthage. Despite a peace treaty, Rome seizes the opportunity to strip Carthage of Sardinia and Corsica.
229 BCE - 228 BCE: Rome fights Illyrian pirates. Queen Teuta pays tribute to Rome.
226 BCE: Hasdrubal signs an agreement with Rome not to cross the Ebro river in Spain.
225 BCE: Segesta is granted the status of civitas immunis et libera by Rome.
222 BCE: Rome conquers Cisalpine Gaul (modern-day Provence, France).
219 BCE: The physician Archagathus of Sparta arrives in Rome.
219 BCE: Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War.
218 BCE: Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal sacks Saguntum in Spain. The Second Punic War begins.
216 BCE: "Hannibal ante portas." Hannibal directly threatens the city of Rome, but cannot advance due to lack of supplies and reinforcements.
214 BCE - 205 BCE: First Macedonian War: Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon.
213 BCE - 212 BCE: Roman commander Marcus Claudius Marcellus lays seige to and ultimately sacks Syracuse.
213 BCE: Hasdrubal deployed from Spain to North Africa to fend off attack on Carthaginian interests by Syphax, an ally of Rome.
212 BCE: A Carthaginian army is defeated in Sicily by a Roman army led by Marcellus. Syracuse falls to Rome who now control the island.
212 BCE - 205 BCE: The Achaean League sides with Macedon against Rome in the First Macedonian War.
210 BCE: Rome attacks Agrigento.
210 BCE - 207 BCE: Scipio Africanus conquers Spain for Rome.
207 BCE: Rome defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Metaurus.
200 BCE - 196 BCE: The Achaean League sides with Rome in the Second Macedonian War.
200 BCE: Rome now dominates the production of coinage in Italy.
196 BCE: The earliest known Triumphal Arches are built in Rome by L.Sertinius.
192 BCE: A temple dedicated to Vejovis is built in Rome.
191 BCE: The Achaean League signs a treaty of alliance with Rome.
191 BCE - 134 BCE: Various resistance movements against Rome in Iberia. Viriato leads the Lusitanians against Rome from 154 to 139 BC.
191 BCE: Antiochus III and his army, including many Galatians, are defeated by Rome at Magnesia.
189 BCE: Rome gives control of Lycia to Rhodes.
188 BCE: Rome gives Samos its independence.
188 BCE: The treaty of Apamea Kibotos. Peace and alliance is established between the Seleucid Empire and Rome joined by its allies, such as Pergamon and Rhodes. The Seleucids have to evacuate all the land and the cities from Asia Minor and to pay a huge war indemnity.
184 BCE: The first basilica is added to Rome's Forum Romanum.
179 BCE: The Basilica Fulvia is added to Rome's Forum Romanum.
172 BCE - 168 BCE: Third Macedonian War: Perseus of Macedon challenges Rome and is defeated.
169 BCE: The Basilica Sempronia is built in Rome's Forum Romanum.
168 BCE: Rome defeats Macedon at Battle of Pydna.
166 BCE: Rome puts Delos under the jurisdiction of Athens and makes the island a free port.
166 BCE: Rome gives dominion over the Cyclades to Athens.
159 BCE: First water-clock set up in Rome.
150 BCE: A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War.
149 BCE: Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage.
146 BCE: First Roman all-marble building is constructed, the temple of Jupiter Stater in Rome.
121 BCE: Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province.
107 BCE - 100 BCE: Gaius Marius reforms the Roman army.
100 BCE - 44 BCE: Life of Gaius Julius Caesar, founder of the Roman Empire.
89 BCE: All poleis or city-states in Magna Graecia come under Roman control.
80 BCE: Sulla moves the Olympic Games to Rome for a single Olympiad.
70 BCE: Pompey and Crassus are made consuls.
59 BCE - 17 CE: Life of Livy.
58 BCE - 51 BCE: Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
55 BCE - 54 BCE: Julius Caesar's expeditions in Britain.
55 BCE: Pompey the Great builds the first permanent stone theatre in Rome.
54 BCE - 29 BCE: Forum of Caesar constructed in Rome by Julius Caesar as another area to conduct judicial business. It is the best surviving of his monuments.
44 BCE: Julius Caesar is murdered.
43 BCE - 17 CE: Life of the Roman writer Ovid, author of Metamorphoses.
43 BCE - 36 BCE: Second Triumvirate: Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (official approval by the Roman Senate). Mass proscriptions including Cicero.
36 BCE: Agrippa defeats the naval fleet of Sextus Pompey in the battle of Naulochos.
31 BCE: Greece absorbed into Roman Empire.
29 BCE: Augustus builds the temple of Divius Iulius on the spot of Julius Caesar's funeral pyre in Rome's Forum Romanum.
27 BCE: The first Pantheon is built in Rome and dedicated by Marcus Agrippa.
20 BCE: The Campus Martius baths in Rome are constructed and donated to the people by Agrippa.
20 BCE: Military engineer and architect Vitruvius publishes his "De Architectura".
19 BCE: Arch of Augustus built in Rome to commemorate victory over the Parthians.
13 BCE: Official inauguration of the Theatre of Marcellus in Rome.
10 BCE: Augustus rebuilds the Temple of Castor and Pollux in Rome's Forum Romanum.
1 CE - 100 CE: Mithraism spreads in the Roman empire.
13 CE: Augustus creates the cohortes urbanae in Rome to help maintain public order.
23 CE: The castra praetoria, permanent camp of the Praetorian Guard, is built in Rome by Sejanus.
42 CE - 62 CE: Paul the Apostle goes on missionary journeys across Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome.
50 CE - 60 CE: Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
60 CE - 61 CE: Boudicca's Revolt in Britain.
64 CE: Unofficial persecution of Christians in Rome.
64 CE: The great fire in Rome.
64 CE: The Roman port of Ostia reaches its maximum size becoming a major urban centre.
64 CE: Fire destroys the Circus Maximus in Rome.
65 CE: The Circus Maximus in Rome is rebuilt and its capacity increased to 250,000.
65 CE: The Baths of Nero are built in Rome.
66 CE - 73 CE: The Jewish Revolt against Rome.
68 CE - 69 CE: Year of the Four Emperors: Civil war in Rome.
70 CE: The city of Jerusalem is besieged and captured by Rome; the Second Temple destroyed.
71 CE: Titus returns to Rome from Jewish War.
72 CE: Vespasian begins construction of the Colosseum in Rome.
79 CE: Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash.
80 CE: The Colosseum in Rome is officially opened by Titus with a 100 day gladiator spectacular.
80 CE: The first Pantheon in Rome is destroyed by fire.
81 CE - 96 CE: Construction is finally completed on the Colosseum of Rome in the reign of Domitian.
83 CE: Battle of Mons Graupius in Scotland.
96 CE: Death of Roman Emperor Domitian.
110 CE: First documented martydom in the Colosseum of Rome, that of St. Ignatius of Antioch.
110 CE: The second Pantheon building in Rome is hit by lightning and destroyed by fire.
113 CE: Trajan's column is constructed in Rome which commemorates the emperor's campaigns in Dacia.
125 CE: The Pantheon is completed in Rome.
138 CE - 161 CE: Reign of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.
180 CE: The Column of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina is erected in Rome. It depicts in relief sculpture the emperors' campaigns across the Danube.
192 CE: Emperor Commodus is murdered, civil war ensues (until 197 CE).
202 CE: The Pantheon in Rome is repaired by Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
227 CE: The Baths of Nero in Rome are extensively renovated and expanded by Alexander Severus and renamed Thermae Alexandrinae.
235 CE: The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are completed.
238 CE: Year of the Six Emperors in the Roman Empire.
272 CE: Possible year of Emperor Constantine's birth.
283 CE: A fire devastates Rome's Forum Romanum, necessitating an extensive rebuilding programme.
286 CE: Naval commander Carausius (Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius) declares himself emperor in Britain and Northern Gaul.
293 CE: Emperor Carausius assassinated by Allectus.
308 CE: Constantine I named "caesar" of the west.
312 CE: Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.
312 CE: Constantine I reduces the cohortes urbanae of Rome.
337 CE: Death of Emperor Constantine I.
360 CE - 380 CE: The Temple of Saturn is rebuilt in the Forum Romanum of Rome.
402 CE: Ravenna becomes the capital of the Western Roman Empire.
408 CE: Alaric I the Visigoth besieges Rome. As ransom, Rome pays 5,000 pounds of gold, 30,000 pounds of silver, 4,000 silken tunics, 3,000 hides dyed scarlet, and 3,000 pounds of pepper.
410 CE: Alaric of the Visigoths sacks Rome.
410 CE: Alaric sacks Rome.
422 CE: The Colosseum of Rome is damaged by earthquake.
455 CE: Vandals sack Rome.
536 CE: Rome falls to Belisarius.
549 CE: The last official chariot race is held in Rome's Circus Maximus.
608 CE: The Pantheon in Rome is converted into a Christian church.
730 CE: First reference to the Flavian Amphitheatre as the Colosseum by the Venerable Bede.