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7200 BCE: Elamite community of Chogha Bonut established.
4395 BCE: City of Susa founded in region of ancient Persia.
3000 BCE: Aryan tribes of Indo-Iranians migrate to the region, among them are Persians.
1500 BCE - 1000 BCE: Development of the religion of Zoroastrianism in region of ancient Persia.
1000 BCE: Scythians migrate from Persia into the Asian steppes.
750 BCE: Persians migrate into Iran from Asia.
727 BCE - 675 BCE: Medes unite during the reign of their king Dayukku (aka Deioces).
675 BCE - 640 BCE: Persians settle in Persis during the reign of their king Thiepes.
553 BCE: Cyrus the Great successfully rebels against the Medes and establishes the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
550 BCE: Cyrus the Great of Persia founds the Achaemenid Empire.
550 BCE - 330 BCE: The Persian Achaemenid Empire reigns over Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Egypt.
550 BCE - 530 BCE: Achaemenid Army organized under Cyrus the Great of Persia based on Cyaxares' model.
550 BCE - 330 BCE: The Corps of the Ten Thousand Immortals is formed during the reign of Cyrus the Great of Persia.
550 BCE - 330 BCE: Achaemenid Empire of Persia refines the earlier system of satraps.
546 BCE: Persia controls Lycia.
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
530 BCE - 522 BCE: Reign of Cambyses II of Persia.
530 BCE: Persia conquers the Indus Valley.
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia invades Egypt and uses Bastet's image to force Egyptian surrender at the Battle of Pelusium.
525 BCE - 522 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia rules Egypt and leads campaign to Nubia.
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
522 BCE: Darius I (Darius the Great) succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Cambyses II.
522 BCE - 486 BCE: The Immortals serve under the reign of Darius I The Great of Persia.
520 BCE: Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
520 BCE: Darius I of Persia fights the Scythians (not very successfully).
515 BCE: Darius I moves the capital of Persia from Pasargadae to Persepolis.
513 BCE - 512 BCE: Darius I of Persia campaigns against Scythians into European Scythia, past the Danube River, Scythians refuse to fight and Darius is forced to abandon the campaign due to lack of provisions.
513 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Asia Minor, Miltiades becomes Persian vassal.
499 BCE: Ionian Greek colonies of Asia Minor revolt against Persia; Miltiades supports them.
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
490 BCE: Athens builds a treasury at Delphi following their victory at Marathon against Persia.
486 BCE: Xerxes succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Darius I.
486 BCE - 465 BCE: The Immortals serve under the reign of Xerxes I of Persia; notably in his 480 BCE invasion of Greece.
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
485 BCE - 465 BCE: Reign of Xerxes I (the Great) of Persia.
480 BCE: Thebes sides with Persia during Xerxes invasion of Greece.
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet led by Themistocles defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
478 BCE: Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
449 BCE: Peace is agreed on by Athens and Persia, sometimes referred to as the Peace of Callias.
449 BCE - 448 BCE: Peace between Greece and Persia.
448 BCE: Ionian cities become independent from Persia.
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
401 BCE: Retreat from Persia of Xenophon and the ten thousand mercenaries.
380 BCE - 330 BCE: Life of Darius III of Persia.
336 BCE - 330 BCE: The Immortals continue to serve under the reign of Darius III of Persia.
333 BCE: Battle of Issus. Alexander is victorious against Darius III of Persia.
331 BCE - 323 BCE: Jordan taken by Alexander the Great in his conquest of Persia.
330 BCE: Death of Darius III and end of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
330 BCE: Persian Achaemenid Empire falls to Alexander the Great.
317 BCE: Demetrius I commands his father's cavalry units at the battles of Paraetacene and Gabiene in Persia.
312 BCE - 63 BCE: The Seleucid Empire replaces the Achaemenid Empire.
247 BCE - 224 BCE: Parthia replaces the Seleucid Empire.
224 BCE - 651 CE: The Sassanian Empire replaces the Parthian Empire.
224 CE - 240 CE: Reign of Ardashir I, who reformed the Persia by centralizing power, making Zoroastrianism state religion, and rivalling Rome.
387 CE: Roman emperor Theodosius I and Shapur III of Persia agree to formally divide Armenia between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sasanian Empire.
428 CE - 652 CE: Persia rules one half of Armenia as the Marzpanate, that is with marzpan viceroys.
484 CE: The Treaty of Nvarsak is signed between Persia and Armenia giving the latter a greater political autonomy and freedom of religious thought.
505 CE - 507 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds a new fortress at Anastasiopolis (Dara) on the frontier with Persia.
562 CE: Artashat in Armenia is confirmed as an official trading post between Persia and the Byzantine Empire.
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
651 CE: Sassanian Empire conquered during the Muslim Arab invasion of the 7th century CE.
1253 CE - 1260 CE: A Mongol army led by Hulegu invades Persia and the Middle East.
1256 CE: The Mongols defeat the Ismailis (aka the Assassins) in Persia.