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Ottoman Empire Timeline

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  • 1299 - 1326
    Reign of Osman I.
  • 1326
    Prusa (Bursa) falls to Ottoman control shortly after Osman's death; it becomes the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1326 - 1362
    Reign of Orhan, as the second sovereign of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1361
    Adrianople (Edirne) falls to Prince Murad, the son of Orhan, later Murad I.
  • 1362 - 1389
    Murad I rules as the sovereign of the Ottoman Empire and brands himself as a sultan.
  • 1389
    Murad I defeats a European coalition army led by the Serbians at the Battle of Kosovo but dies at the climax of battle.
  • 1389 - 1402
    Bayezid I rules as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 25 Sep 1396
    The Battle of Nicopolis, aka the Nicopolis Crusade, where a western Christian army is defeated by the Ottoman Turks.
  • 1402
    Bayezid I is defeated by the forces of Timur at the Battle of Ankara and is captured.
  • 1402 - 1413
    Ottoman Interregnum; Mehmed I emerges victorious.
  • 1421 - 1451
    Reign of Murad II.
  • 10 Nov 1444
    Murad II resumes defeats Crusader forces at the Battle of Varna.
  • 1451 - 1481
    Mehmed II rules as the Sultan.
  • 29 May 1453
    Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II sacks Constantinople.
  • 1475 - 1783
    Crimean Tatars serve as vassals to the Ottomans.
  • 1481 - 1512
    Reign of Bayezid II.
  • 1512
    Selim I deposes his father Bayezid II.
  • 1512 - 1520
    Reign of Selim I; the Ottoman Empire doubles in size.
  • 1514
    Battle of Chaldiron; Selim I defeats the army of the Safavid Shah Ismail I.
  • 1516 - 1517
    Selim I conquers the Mamluk Sultanate, taking Syria, Palestine, Hejaz and Egypt. Ottoman Sultanate declares itself as a Caliphate.
  • 1520 - 1566
    Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.
  • 1521
    Belgrade falls to the Ottomans.
  • 1523
    Suleiman conquers Rhodes.
  • 1526
    Battle of Mohacs; Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian field army under Louis II.
  • 1529
    Ottomans fail to take Vienna.
  • 1566
    Suleiman I dies while campaigning in Hungary.
  • 1566 - 1574
    Reign of Selim II.
  • 1570
    Ottomans conquer Cyprus.
  • 1571
    Battle of Lepanto; the Ottoman navy is defeated by the Holy League.
  • 1596 - 1609
    Celali revolts throughout Anatolia.
  • 1669
    Crete falls to the Ottoman Sultanate.
  • 1683
    Ottomans fail to take Vienna for the second time.
  • 1699
    Treaty of Karlowitz.
  • 1789 - 1807
    Reign of Selim III.
  • 1826
    Conservative Jannisary corps are disbanded.
  • 1839 - 1876
    Tanzimat reforms are introduced.
  • 1876 - 1878
    First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1876 - 1909
    Reign of Abdul Hamid II.
  • 1908 - 1920
    Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1909
    Abdul Hamid II is deposed by the Young Turks party.
  • 1914 - 1923
    Armenian population of Anatolia is subjected to genocide.
  • 1918
    The Ottoman Empire is defeated in World War I.
  • 1922 - 1924
    Abdulmejid II serves the office of the Caliphate only, as a symbolic figure.
  • 1923
    The Republic of Turkey declares independence under Mustafa Kemal.
  • 1924
    Mustafa Kemal abolishes the institute of Caliphate.

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