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1162 CE - 1227 CE: Life of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire.
1205 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
1205 CE - 1255 CE: Life of the Mongol military commander and grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu Khan.
1206 CE - 1368 CE: The Mongol Empire rules in Central and East Asia.
1206 CE: A great Mongol conference of tribal leaders (khuriltai) awards Temujin the title of Genghis Khan ('universal ruler').
1206 CE - 1227 CE: Reign of Genghis Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
1209 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
1209 CE: The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
1211 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
1212 CE - 1215 CE: The Mongols attack Song China, sacking over 90 cities.
1214 CE: The Jurchen Jin state signs a short-lived peace treaty with the Mongol Empire and is obliged to pay tribute.
1215 CE: The Mongols sack Beijing.
1215 CE: The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
1215 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
1218 CE - 1220 CE: The Mongols attack the Khwarazm Empire in Central Asia.
1219 CE: A Goryeo army allies with the Mongols to attack the Khitan in northern Korea.
1221 CE: The Mongols attack northern Afghanistan.
1222 CE: The Mongols defeat a Russian army at Kalka.
1227 CE - 1363 CE: The Mongol Chagatai Khanate rules in Central Asia.
1227 CE - 1242 CE: Reign of Chagatai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Chagatai Khanate named after him.
1227 CE: Death of Genghis Khan from illness.
1228 CE - 1240 CE: Composition of the Secret History of the Mongols.
1229 CE - 1241 CE: Reign of Ogedei Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
1230 CE - 1231 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin State.
1231 CE - 1232 CE: Ogedei Khan leads a Mongol invasion into Korea.
1233 CE: Kaifeng, capital of the Jurchen Jin State, falls after a lengthy siege by the Mongols.
1234 CE - 1236 CE: Ogedei Khan orders a census to be conducted for tax purposes across northern China.
1234 CE: The Mongols attack and conquer the Jurchen Jin State in northern China.
1235 CE: Ogedei Khan orders the construction of a new capital of the Mongol Empire at Karakorum, Mongolia.
1235 CE: The Mongols invade northern Iraq and western Asia
1235 CE - 1263 CE: Karakorum is capital of the Mongol Empire.
1236 CE - 1242 CE: Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.
1237 CE: The city of Ryazan (Riazan) is besieged and captured by the Mongols.
1238 CE: The Mongols invade Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.
1238 CE: The Mongols capture the city of Vladimir.
1238 CE: The Mongols capture the city of Torshok.
1240 CE: The Mongols capture Kiev.
1240 CE: The Mongols sack Halych.
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Henry the Pious, the Duke of Silesia, near Liegnitz (Legnica).
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Bela IV, king of Hungary, at the Battle of Mohi.
1241 CE: The Mongols capture Buda and Pest.
1241 CE: The Mongols capture the great city of Gran (Esztergom) in Hungary.
1241 CE: Ogedei Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire, dies at the capital Karakorum.
1242 CE: Death of Chagatai, ruler of the Chagatai Khanate.
1246 CE - 1248 CE: Reign of Guyuk Khan as ruler of the Mongol Empire.
1251 CE: Batu Khan and the Jochid-Toluid kurultai declare Mongke Great Khan of the Mongols.
1251 CE - 1259 CE: Reign of Mongke Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
1253 CE - 1255 CE: The Franciscan missionary and chronicler William of Rubruck visits the Mongol Empire, including the capital Karakorum.
1253 CE - 1260 CE: A Mongol army led by Hulegu invades Persia and the Middle East.
1256 CE: The Mongols defeat the Ismailis (aka the Assassins) in Persia.
1257 CE: The Mongols invade Vietnam.
1257 CE: The Mongols conquer the Dali kingdom in southern China.
1258 CE: An uprising restores the monarchy in Korea and makes peace with the Mongol Empire.
1258 CE: The Mongols conquer the Abbasid Caliphate. During this campaign there is the infamous sacking of Baghdad and murder of the caliph.
1259 CE: Death of Mongke Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
1259 CE: The Mongols besiege and capture Aleppo in Syria.
1260 CE - 1294 CE: Reign of Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
1260 CE - 1264 CE: Kublai Khan fights a civil war with his brother Ariq Boke for control of the Mongol Empire.
1260 CE - 1265 CE: Hulegu rules the Ilkhanate.
1260 CE - 1335 CE: The Mongol Ilkhanate rules in Iran and neighbouring territories.
1262 CE: Kublai Khan captures Karakorum after his rival
Ariq Boke (1219-1266 CE) used it as his base.
1263 CE - 1273 CE: Xanadu is the capital of the Mongol Empire.
1265 CE - 1282 CE: Abaqa rules the Ilkhanate.
1268 CE: Kublai Khan resumes the Mongol attacks on Song Dynasty China.
1270 CE: Part of northern Korea is conquered by the Mongol Empire.
1270 CE: Abaqa, ruler of the Ilkhanate, defeats Baraq, ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, at the battle of Herat.
1271 CE - 1368 CE: The Mongol Yuan Dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, rules China.
1271 CE: The Ilkhanate signs a trade agreement with Venice.
1272 CE - 1301 CE: The Mongol leader Qaidu II dominates Central Asia and nominates khans to rule the Chagatai Khanate.
1273 CE: Xiangyang falls into Mongol hands.
1273 CE: Abaqa, ruler of the Ilkhanate, sacks the city of Bukhara in the Chagatai Khanate.
1274 CE - 1364 CE: Xanadu is the summer capital of the Mongol Empire.
1275 CE - 1279 CE: The Mongols led by Kublai Khan attack and conquer the last remnants of Song China.
1275 CE - 1292 CE: Marco Polo serves Kublai Khan in Mongol Yuan Dynasty China.
1276 CE: Lin'an, the capital of the Song Dynasty, is captured by a Mongol army.
1277 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty invade Burma.
1277 CE: The Ilkhanate defeats a Mamluk army in Lesser Armenia.
1279 CE: The Mongols complete their conquest of Song Dynasty China with victory at the naval battle at Yaishan.
1281 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China invade Vietnam for a second time.
1282 CE - 1284 CE: Ahmad Teguder rules the Ilkhanate.
1284 CE - 1291 CE: Arghun rules the Ilkhanate.
1286 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Vietnam.
1287 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Burma.
1288 CE: The Ilkhanate agrees a trade deal with Genoa.
1291 CE - 1295 CE: Gaikhatu rules the Ilkhanate.
1292 CE: A Mongol/Yuan Dynasty naval force attacks Java.
1295 CE: Ghazan, ruler of the Ilkhanate, converts to Islam.
1295 CE: Baidu rules the Ilkhanate.
1295 CE - 1304 CE: Ghazan rules the Ilkhanate.
1299 CE: The Ilkhanate briefly captures Mamluk-controlled Aleppo and Damascus.
1303 CE: The Mamluks defeat an Ilkhanate army in Syria at Marj al-Suffar.
1304 CE - 1316 CE: Oljeitu rules the Ilkhanate.
1316 CE - 1335 CE: Abu Said rules the Ilkhanate.
1322 CE: The Ilkhanate and Mamluk Sultanate sign a peace treaty.
1335 CE: The Ilkhanate disintegrates into smaller states following dynastic disputes.
1347 CE - 1363 CE: Tughlugh Timur rules as the last Khan of the Chagatai Khanate. Upon his death, the state disintegrates.
1370 CE: The last Yuan Dynasty emperor, Toghon Temur (r. 1333-1368 CE), dies at Karakorum.
1430 CE: The city of Xanadu, once the capital of the Mongol Empire, is definitively abandoned.