Mongol Empire Timeline

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1160 CE 1170 CE 1180 CE 1190 CE 1200 CE 1210 CE 1220 CE 1230 CE 1240 CE 1250 CE 1260 CE 1270 CE 1280 CE 1290 CE 1300 CE 1310 CE 1320 CE 1330 CE 1340 CE 1350 CE 1360 CE 1370 CE 1380 CE 1390 CE 1400 CE 1410 CE 1420 CE 1430 CE  
 
 
1162 CE - 1227 CE: Life of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1205 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
1205 CE - 1255 CE: Life of the Mongol military commander and grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu Khan.
 
1206 CE - 1368 CE: The Mongol Empire rules in Central and East Asia.
 
 
1206 CE: A great Mongol conference of tribal leaders (khuriltai) awards Temujin the title of Genghis Khan ('universal ruler').
 
 
1206 CE - 1227 CE: Reign of Genghis Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1209 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
 
1209 CE: The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
 
 
1211 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
 
1212 CE - 1215 CE: The Mongols attack Song China, sacking over 90 cities.
 
 
1214 CE: The Jurchen Jin state signs a short-lived peace treaty with the Mongol Empire and is obliged to pay tribute.
 
 
1215 CE: The Mongols sack Beijing.
 
 
1215 CE: The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
 
 
1215 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
 
 
1218 CE - 1220 CE: The Mongols attack the Khwarazm Empire in Central Asia.
 
 
1219 CE: A Goryeo army allies with the Mongols to attack the Khitan in northern Korea.
 
 
1221 CE: The Mongols attack northern Afghanistan.
 
 
1222 CE: The Mongols defeat a Russian army at Kalka.
 
1227 CE - 1363 CE: The Mongol Chagatai Khanate rules in Central Asia.
 
 
1227 CE - 1242 CE: Reign of Chagatai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Chagatai Khanate named after him.
 
 
1227 CE: Death of Genghis Khan from illness.
 
 
1228 CE - 1240 CE: Composition of the Secret History of the Mongols.
 
 
1229 CE - 1241 CE: Reign of Ogedei Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1230 CE - 1231 CE: The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin State.
 
 
1231 CE - 1232 CE: Ogedei Khan leads a Mongol invasion into Korea.
 
 
1233 CE: Kaifeng, capital of the Jurchen Jin State, falls after a lengthy siege by the Mongols.
 
 
1234 CE - 1236 CE: Ogedei Khan orders a census to be conducted for tax purposes across northern China.
 
 
1234 CE: The Mongols attack and conquer the Jurchen Jin State in northern China.
 
 
1235 CE: Ogedei Khan orders the construction of a new capital of the Mongol Empire at Karakorum, Mongolia.
 
 
1235 CE: The Mongols invade northern Iraq and western Asia
 
 
1235 CE - 1263 CE: Karakorum is capital of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1236 CE - 1242 CE: Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.
 
 
1237 CE: The city of Ryazan (Riazan) is besieged and captured by the Mongols.
 
 
1238 CE: The Mongols invade Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.
 
 
1238 CE: The Mongols capture the city of Vladimir.
 
 
1238 CE: The Mongols capture the city of Torshok.
 
 
1240 CE: The Mongols capture Kiev.
 
1240 CE: The Mongols sack Halych.
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Henry the Pious, the Duke of Silesia, near Liegnitz (Legnica).
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Bela IV, king of Hungary, at the Battle of Mohi.
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols capture Buda and Pest.
 
 
1241 CE: The Mongols capture the great city of Gran (Esztergom) in Hungary.
 
 
1241 CE: Ogedei Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire, dies at the capital Karakorum.
 
 
1242 CE: Death of Chagatai, ruler of the Chagatai Khanate.
 
 
1246 CE - 1248 CE: Reign of Guyuk Khan as ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
1251 CE: Batu Khan and the Jochid-Toluid kurultai declare Mongke Great Khan of the Mongols.
 
 
1251 CE - 1259 CE: Reign of Mongke Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1253 CE - 1255 CE: The Franciscan missionary and chronicler William of Rubruck visits the Mongol Empire, including the capital Karakorum.
 
 
1253 CE - 1260 CE: A Mongol army led by Hulegu invades Persia and the Middle East.
 
 
1256 CE: The Mongols defeat the Ismailis (aka the Assassins) in Persia.
 
 
1257 CE: The Mongols invade Vietnam.
 
 
1257 CE: The Mongols conquer the Dali kingdom in southern China.
 
 
1258 CE: An uprising restores the monarchy in Korea and makes peace with the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1258 CE: The Mongols conquer the Abbasid Caliphate. During this campaign there is the infamous sacking of Baghdad and murder of the caliph.
 
 
1259 CE: Death of Mongke Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1259 CE: The Mongols besiege and capture Aleppo in Syria.
 
 
1260 CE - 1294 CE: Reign of Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1260 CE - 1264 CE: Kublai Khan fights a civil war with his brother Ariq Boke for control of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1260 CE - 1265 CE: Hulegu rules the Ilkhanate.
 
1260 CE - 1335 CE: The Mongol Ilkhanate rules in Iran and neighbouring territories.
 
 
1262 CE: Kublai Khan captures Karakorum after his rival Ariq Boke (1219-1266 CE) used it as his base.
 
 
1263 CE - 1273 CE: Xanadu is the capital of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1265 CE - 1282 CE: Abaqa rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1268 CE: Kublai Khan resumes the Mongol attacks on Song Dynasty China.
 
 
1270 CE: Part of northern Korea is conquered by the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1270 CE: Abaqa, ruler of the Ilkhanate, defeats Baraq, ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, at the battle of Herat.
 
 
1271 CE - 1368 CE: The Mongol Yuan Dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, rules China.
 
 
1271 CE: The Ilkhanate signs a trade agreement with Venice.
 
 
1272 CE - 1301 CE: The Mongol leader Qaidu II dominates Central Asia and nominates khans to rule the Chagatai Khanate.
 
 
1273 CE: Xiangyang falls into Mongol hands.
 
 
1273 CE: Abaqa, ruler of the Ilkhanate, sacks the city of Bukhara in the Chagatai Khanate.
 
 
1274 CE - 1364 CE: Xanadu is the summer capital of the Mongol Empire.
 
 
1275 CE - 1279 CE: The Mongols led by Kublai Khan attack and conquer the last remnants of Song China.
 
 
1275 CE - 1292 CE: Marco Polo serves Kublai Khan in Mongol Yuan Dynasty China.
 
 
1276 CE: Lin'an, the capital of the Song Dynasty, is captured by a Mongol army.
 
 
1277 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty invade Burma.
 
 
1277 CE: The Ilkhanate defeats a Mamluk army in Lesser Armenia.
 
 
1279 CE: The Mongols complete their conquest of Song Dynasty China with victory at the naval battle at Yaishan.
 
 
1281 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China invade Vietnam for a second time.
 
 
1282 CE - 1284 CE: Ahmad Teguder rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1284 CE - 1291 CE: Arghun rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1286 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Vietnam.
 
 
1287 CE: The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Burma.
 
 
1288 CE: The Ilkhanate agrees a trade deal with Genoa.
 
 
1291 CE - 1295 CE: Gaikhatu rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1292 CE: A Mongol/Yuan Dynasty naval force attacks Java.
 
 
1295 CE: Ghazan, ruler of the Ilkhanate, converts to Islam.
 
 
1295 CE: Baidu rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1295 CE - 1304 CE: Ghazan rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1299 CE: The Ilkhanate briefly captures Mamluk-controlled Aleppo and Damascus.
 
 
1303 CE: The Mamluks defeat an Ilkhanate army in Syria at Marj al-Suffar.
 
 
1304 CE - 1316 CE: Oljeitu rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1316 CE - 1335 CE: Abu Said rules the Ilkhanate.
 
 
1322 CE: The Ilkhanate and Mamluk Sultanate sign a peace treaty.
 
 
1335 CE: The Ilkhanate disintegrates into smaller states following dynastic disputes.
 
 
1347 CE - 1363 CE: Tughlugh Timur rules as the last Khan of the Chagatai Khanate. Upon his death, the state disintegrates.
 
 
1370 CE: The last Yuan Dynasty emperor, Toghon Temur (r. 1333-1368 CE), dies at Karakorum.
 
 
1430 CE: The city of Xanadu, once the capital of the Mongol Empire, is definitively abandoned.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1160 CE 1200 CE 1240 CE 1280 CE 1320 CE 1360 CE 1400 CE

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