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11700 BCE: End of the most recent glacial episode within the current Quaternary Ice Age.
10000 BCE: Beginnings of agriculture in the Middle East.
9000 BCE: Cultivation of wild cereals in the Fertile Crescent.
8000 BCE: Ovens in use in the Near East are applied to pottery production.
7600 BCE - 610 BCE: Cylinder Seals in use throughout Mesopotamia.
7600 BCE - 6000 BCE: Stamp Seals and Cylinder Seals develop in Mesopotamia.
6000 BCE: Nineveh is first settled.
5400 BCE: Shrines to Enki built at the city of Eridu in Mesopotamia.
5400 BCE: The City of Eridu is founded.
5000 BCE: Sumer inhabited by Ubaid people.
5000 BCE: Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.
5000 BCE: Godin Tepe settled.
5000 BCE - 1750 BCE: Sumerian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
5000 BCE - 4100 BCE: The Ubaid Period in Sumer.
4500 BCE: The Sumerians built their first temple.
4500 BCE: Mother Goddess, precursor to Ninhursag, worshipped in Mesopotamia during Ubaid Period.
4500 BCE: First walled cities. Uruk in Mesopotamia first city.
4500 BCE: The City of Uruk founded.
4100 BCE - 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Mesopotamia. First cities.
4100 BCE - 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Sumer.
4000 BCE: First settlement of Ur.
3600 BCE: Invention of writing in Sumer at Uruk.
3400 BCE: Priests become the rulers of Mesopotamian cities.
3000 BCE: Sumer civilization in Mesopotamia use gold in jewellery manufacture.
3000 BCE - 2900 BCE: Mari, the earliest known planned city, is built near the eastern bank of the Euphrates.
2900 BCE: Probable date of the regional Great Flood when the river Euphrates rose.
2900 BCE - 2334 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Sumer.
2900 BCE - 2700 BCE: Ninhursag first appears in written works during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
2900 BCE - 2700 BCE: Enlil first mentioned as Sumerian god during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
2750 BCE: Secular rulers replace priests.
2750 BCE: The city of Tyre is founded.
2700 BCE: Hatti people establish trade with the city of Sumer.
2600 BCE: The Myth of Etana written.
2600 BCE: Uruk ruled by Gilgamesh for 126 years according to the Sumerian King List.
2500 BCE: Beginning of literature in Sumerian.
2500 BCE: First Dynasty of Lagash under King Eannutum is first empire in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: First use of war chariots in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: Earliest Sumerian sources to mention migrating Amorites in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: Enki worshipped as Ea by the Akkadians of Mesopotamia; becomes popular throughout the region.
2350 BCE: First code of laws by Urukagina, king of Lagash.
2334 BCE - 2083 BCE: Enlil worshipped during the time of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.
2334 BCE - 2218 BCE: The Akkadian Empire rules Sumer.
2334 BCE - 2279 BCE: Sargon of Akkad (the Great) reigns over Mesopotamia and thus creates the world's first empire.
2330 BCE: Sargon of Akkad sacks Ur.
2300 BCE: The Eridu Genesis - The Sumerian Flood Story - is composed.
2218 BCE - 2047 BCE: The Gutian Period in Sumer.
2150 BCE - 1400 BCE: The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh written on clay tablets.
2100 BCE: The Reign of Utu-Hegal at Uruk in Sumer and creation of Sumerian King List.
2100 BCE: First ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur.
2083 BCE - 2050 BCE: The Dark Age of Mesopotamia.
2055 BCE - 2047 BCE: Utu Hegel's reign over Sumerian and Akkadian cities.
2050 BCE: The Code of Ur-Nammu (the earliest known code of laws) is written.
2047 BCE - 1750 BCE: Third dynasty of Ur.
2047 BCE - 2030 BCE: Ur-Nammu's reign over Sumer.
2047 BCE - 1750 BCE: The Ur III Period in Sumer, known as the Sumerian Renaissance.
2038 BCE: King Shulgi of Ur builds his great wall in Sumer.
2000 BCE: Domesticated horses introduced in Mesopotamia.
2000 BCE - 1600 BCE: Amorite period in Mesopotamia.
2000 BCE - 1600 BCE: Older dog goddess Bau becomes healing goddess Gula during the Old Babylonian Period in Mesopotamia.
1900 BCE: Ashur, capial of Assyria, is founded.
1900 BCE: Assur credited as patron god of the City of Ashur in Mesopotamia.
1900 BCE: The first aqueducts were constructed in Mesopotamia and on Minoan Crete.
1900 BCE - 1400 BCE: Trade flourishes between Mesopotamia and other regions.
1894 BCE: Amorite dynasty established in Babylon.
1800 BCE - 1750 BCE: Probable period of composition for The Queen of the Night in southern Mesopotamia.
1795 BCE - 1750 BCE: Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.
1792 BCE - 1750 BCE: Female deities in Mesopotamia decline in status during the reign of Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon; but not Gula.
1792 BCE: King Hammurabi builds walls of Babylon.
1787 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin.
1772 BCE: The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.
1760 BCE - 1757 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari. The people of Mari are spared according to Hammurabi.
1755 BCE: Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.
1750 BCE: Elamite invasion and Amorite migration ends the Sumerian civilization.
1750 BCE: Elam conquers Ur.
1745 BCE - 1740 BCE: Amorites migrate from Mesopotamia to Canaan.
1680 BCE: Hurrians occupy Assyria.
1595 BCE: Hittites under Mursilli I sack Babylon, ending Amorite rule.
1595 BCE: King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon. Begin of Babylonian "dark ages."
1550 BCE: The Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni is founded.
1500 BCE: Rise of the kingdom of Mitanni.
1500 BCE: Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
1472 BCE: Mittani annexes Assyria.
1400 BCE: Assyria regains its independence.
1350 BCE: Peak of Mitanni power, it is considered a great nation.
1350 BCE - 1250 BCE: The Hittite Empire is at its peak.
1344 BCE - 1322 BCE: King Suppiluliumas I of the Hittites sacks the Mitanni capital Washukanni and installs Artatama II as vassal king.
1321 BCE: Western Mittani is conquered by the Hittites.
1300 BCE - 612 BCE: Assur is recognized as the supreme god of the Assyrians who legitimizes their empire in Mesopotamia and beyond.
1285 BCE: Peak of Hittite power.
1244 BCE - 1208 BCE: Reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, King of Assyria.
1220 BCE: Babylon is under Assyrian control.
1080 BCE: Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia.
1000 BCE: Chaldeans occupy Ur.
853 BCE: Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
734 BCE: Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.
729 BCE: Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
722 BCE - 705 BCE: Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
612 BCE: Downfall of the Assyrian empire.
612 BCE: Ninhursag no longer worshipped in Mesopotamia. .
605 BCE - 562 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II is king of Babylon.
550 BCE - 330 BCE: The Persian Achaemenid Empire reigns over Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Egypt.
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
500 BCE - 330 BCE: The Achaemenid Empire rules in Mesopotamia, Persian Royal Road in use.
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
323 BCE - 31 BCE: The Hellenistic Age. Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
312 BCE: Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
312 BCE - 63 BCE: Duration of the Seleucid Empire.
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Nisaba continues to be worshiped in Mesopotamia during the Seleucid Period.
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
58 BCE - 57 BCE: Ctesiphon becomes Parthian capital during the reign of Orodes II.
115 CE - 117 CE: Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
115 CE - 116 CE: The Roman Empire conquers Mesopotamia.
224 CE: Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
229 CE: Ardashir I and Shapur I drive the Romans from Mesopotamia and Syria.
234 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
262 CE - 266 CE: Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
637 CE: Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
856 CE: The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.