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7600 BCE - 6000 BCE: Stamp Seals and Cylinder Seals develop in Mesopotamia.
7600 BCE - 610 BCE: Cylinder Seals in use throughout Mesopotamia.
5400 BCE: Shrines to Enki built at the city of Eridu in Mesopotamia.
5000 BCE: Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.
4500 BCE: First walled cities. Uruk in Mesopotamia first city.
4500 BCE: Mother Goddess, precursor to Ninhursag, worshipped in Mesopotamia during Ubaid Period.
4100 BCE - 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Mesopotamia. First cities.
3000 BCE: Sumer civilization in Mesopotamia use gold in jewellery manufacture.
2900 BCE - 2700 BCE: Enlil first mentioned as Sumerian god during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
2900 BCE - 2700 BCE: Ninhursag first appears in written works during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
2500 BCE: First Dynasty of Lagash under King Eannutum is first empire in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: Earliest Sumerian sources to mention migrating Amorites in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: Enki worshipped as Ea by the Akkadians of Mesopotamia; becomes popular throughout the region.
2400 BCE: First use of war chariots in Mesopotamia.
2334 BCE - 2279 BCE: Sargon of Akkad (the Great) reigns over Mesopotamia and thus creates the world's first empire.
2334 BCE - 2083 BCE: Enlil worshipped during the time of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.
2083 BCE - 2050 BCE: The Dark Age of Mesopotamia.
2000 BCE: Domesticated horses introduced in Mesopotamia.
2000 BCE - 1600 BCE: Amorite period in Mesopotamia.
2000 BCE - 1600 BCE: Older dog goddess Bau becomes healing goddess Gula during the Old Babylonian Period in Mesopotamia.
1900 BCE: Assur credited as patron god of the City of Ashur in Mesopotamia.
1900 BCE - 1400 BCE: Trade flourishes between Mesopotamia and other regions.
1900 BCE: The first aqueducts were constructed in Mesopotamia and on Minoan Crete
1800 BCE - 1750 BCE: Probable period of composition for The Queen of the Night in southern Mesopotamia.
1792 BCE - 1750 BCE: Female deities in Mesopotamia decline in status during the reign of Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon; but not Gula.
1755 BCE: Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.
1745 BCE - 1740 BCE: Amorites migrate from Mesopotamia to Canaan.
1300 BCE - 612 BCE: Assur is recognized as the supreme god of the Assyrians who legitimizes their empire in Mesopotamia and beyond.
1080 BCE: Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia.
612 BCE: Ninhursag no longer worshipped in Mesopotamia. .
500 BCE - 330 BCE: The Achaemenid Empire rules in Mesopotamia, Persian Royal Road in use.
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Nisaba continues to be worshiped in Mesopotamia during the Seleucid Period.
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
115 CE - 117 CE: Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
115 CE - 116 CE: The Roman Empire conquers Mesopotamia.
234 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
262 CE - 266 CE: Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
637 CE: Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
856 CE: The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.