Mesopotamia Timeline

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  • c. 11,700 BCE
    End of the most recent glacial episode within the current Quaternary Ice Age.
  • 10,000 BCE
    Beginnings of agriculture in the Middle East.
  • 9,000 BCE
    Cultivation of wild cereals in the Fertile Crescent.
  • 8,000 BCE
    Ovens in use in the Near East are applied to pottery production.
  • c. 7,600 BCE - c. 610 BCE
    Cylinder Seals in use throughout Mesopotamia.
  • c. 7,600 BCE - c. 6,000 BCE
    Stamp Seals and Cylinder Seals develop in Mesopotamia.
  • c. 6,000 BCE
    Nineveh is first settled.
  • c. 5,400 BCE
    The City of Eridu is founded.
  • c. 5,400 BCE
    Shrines to Enki built at the city of Eridu in Mesopotamia.
  • c. 5,000 BCE
    Sumer inhabited by Ubaid people.
  • c. 5,000 BCE - 4,100 BCE
    The Ubaid Period in Sumer.
  • c. 5,000 BCE
    Godin Tepe settled
  • 5,000 BCE - 1,750 BCE
    Sumerian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
  • 5,000 BCE
    Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.
  • c. 4,500 BCE
    The City of Uruk founded.
  • c. 4,500 BCE
    Mother Goddess, precursor to Ninhursag, worshipped in Mesopotamia during Ubaid Period.
  • 4,500 BCE
    First walled cities. Uruk in Mesopotamia first city.
  • c. 4,500 BCE
    The Sumerians built their first temple.
  • 4,100 BCE - 2,900 BCE
    Uruk Period in Sumer.
  • 4,100 BCE - 2,900 BCE
    Uruk Period in Mesopotamia. First cities.
  • c. 4,000 BCE
    First settlement of Ur.
  • c. 3,600 BCE
    Invention of writing in Sumer at Uruk.
  • 3,400 BCE
    Priests become the rulers of Mesopotamian cities.
  • c. 3,000 BCE
    Sumer civilization in Mesopotamia use gold in jewellery manufacture.
  • c. 3,000 BCE - c. 2,900 BCE
    Mari, the earliest known planned city, is built near the eastern bank of the Euphrates.
  • 2,900 BCE - 2,334 BCE
    The Early Dynastic Period in Sumer.
  • c. 2,900 BCE - 2,700 BCE
    Ninhursag first appears in written works during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
  • 2,900 BCE - 2,700 BCE
    Enlil first mentioned as Sumerian god during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
  • 2,500 BCE
    First Dynasty of Lagash under King Eannutum is first empire in Mesopotamia.
  • c. 2,400 BCE
    Earliest Sumerian sources to mention migrating Amorites in Mesopotamia.
  • 2,400 BCE
    Enki worshipped as Ea by the Akkadians of Mesopotamia; becomes popular throughout the region.
  • 2,400 BCE
    First use of war chariots in Mesopotamia.
  • 2,350 BCE
    First code of laws by Urukagina, king of Lagash.
  • 2,334 BCE - 2,083 BCE
    Enlil worshipped during the time of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.
  • 2,334 BCE - 2,279 BCE
    Sargon of Akkad (the Great) reigns over Mesopotamia and thus creates the world's first empire.
  • 2,334 BCE - 2,218 BCE
    The Akkadian Empire rules Sumer.
  • c. 2,330 BCE
    Sargon of Akkad sacks Ur.
  • 2,218 BCE - 2,047 BCE
    The Gutian Period in Sumer.
  • c. 2,150 BCE - c. 1,400 BCE
    The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh written on clay tablets.
  • 2,100 BCE
    The Reign of Utu-Hegal at Uruk in Sumer and creation of Sumerian King List.
  • 2,100 BCE
    First ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur.
  • c. 2,083 BCE - c. 2,050 BCE
    The Dark Age of Mesopotamia.
  • c. 2,055 BCE - 2,047 BCE
    Utu Hegel's reign over Sumerian and Akkadian cities.
  • c. 2,050 BCE
    The Code of Ur-Nammu (the earliest known code of laws) is written.
  • 2,047 BCE - 1,750 BCE
    Third dynasty of Ur.
  • 2,047 BCE - 1,750 BCE
    The Ur III Period in Sumer, known as the Sumerian Renaissance.
  • 2,047 BCE - 2,030 BCE
    Ur-Nammu's reign over Sumer.
  • c. 2,038 BCE
    King Shulgi of Ur builds his great wall in Sumer.
  • 2,000 BCE
    Domesticated horses introduced in Mesopotamia.
  • 2,000 BCE - 1,600 BCE
    Older dog goddess Bau becomes healing goddess Gula during the Old Babylonian Period in Mesopotamia.
  • c. 2,000 BCE - 1,600 BCE
    Amorite period in Mesopotamia.
  • 1,900 BCE
    Ashur, capial of Assyria, is founded.
  • c. 1,900 BCE - c. 1,400 BCE
    Trade flourishes between Mesopotamia and other regions.
  • c. 1,900 BCE
    The first aqueducts were constructed in Mesopotamia and on Minoan Crete
  • c. 1,900 BCE
    Assur credited as patron god of the City of Ashur in Mesopotamia.
  • 1,894 BCE
    Amorite dynasty established in Babylon.
  • c. 1,800 BCE - c. 1,750 BCE
    Probable period of composition for The Queen of the Night in southern Mesopotamia.
  • 1,795 BCE - 1,750 BCE
    Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.
  • 1,792 BCE - 1,750 BCE
    Female deities in Mesopotamia decline in status during the reign of Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon; but not Gula.
  • c. 1,792 BCE
    King Hammurabi builds walls of Babylon.
  • 1,787 BCE
  • c. 1,772 BCE
    The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.
  • c. 1,760 BCE - c. 1,757 BCE
    Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari. The people of Mari are spared according to Hammurabi.
  • 1,755 BCE
    Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.
  • 1,750 BCE
    Elamite invasion and Amorite migration ends the Sumerian civilization.
  • 1,750 BCE
  • c. 1,745 BCE - c. 1,740 BCE
    Amorites migrate from Mesopotamia to Canaan.
  • 1,680 BCE
    Hurrians occupy Assyria.
  • 1,595 BCE
    Hittites under Mursilli I sack Babylon, ending Amorite rule.
  • 1,595 BCE
    King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon. Begin of Babylonian "dark ages."
  • 1,550 BCE
    Kingdom of Mittani is founded.
  • c. 1,500 BCE
    Rise of the kingdom of Mitanni.
  • 1,500 BCE
    Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
  • 1,472 BCE
    Mittani annexes Assyria.
  • 1,400 BCE
    Assyria regains its independence.
  • c. 1,350 BCE
    Peak of Mitanni power, it is considered a great nation.
  • 1,350 BCE - 1,250 BCE
    The Hittite empire is at its peak.
  • c. 1,344 BCE - 1,322 BCE
    King Suppiluliumas I of the Hittites sacks the Mitanni capital Washukanni and installs Artatama II as vassal king.
  • c. 1,321 BCE
    Western Mittani is conquered by the Hittites.
  • c. 1,300 BCE - c. 612 BCE
    Assur is recognized as the supreme god of the Assyrians who legitimizes their empire in Mesopotamia and beyond.
  • 1,285 BCE
    Peak of Hittite power.
  • 1,244 BCE - 1,208 BCE
    Reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, King of Assyria.
  • 1,220 BCE
    Babylon is under Assyrian control.
  • 1,080 BCE
    Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia.
  • 1,000 BCE
    Chaldeans occupy Ur.
  • 853 BCE
    Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
  • 734 BCE
    Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.
  • 729 BCE
    Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
  • 722 BCE - 705 BCE
    Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
  • c. 612 BCE
    Ninhursag no longer worshipped in Mesopotamia. .
  • 612 BCE
    Downfall of the Assyrian empire.
  • 605 BCE - 562 BCE
  • 539 BCE
    Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
  • 500 BCE - 330 BCE
    The Achaemenid Empire rules in Mesopotamia, Persian Royal Road in use.
  • 485 BCE
    Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
  • 323 BCE - 31 BCE
    The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
  • 312 BCE
    Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
  • c. 304 BCE - 64 BCE
    Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.
  • 304 BCE - 64 BCE
    Nisaba continues to be worshiped in Mesopotamia during the Seleucid Period.
  • 129 BCE
    Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
  • 100 BCE
    Ctesiphon becomes Parthian capital.
  • 115 CE - 116 CE
    The Roman Empire conquers Mesopotamia.
  • 115 CE - 117 CE
    Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
  • 224 CE
    Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
  • 234 CE
    Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
  • 262 CE - 266 CE
    Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
  • 637 CE
    Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
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12,000 BCE 11,500 BCE 11,000 BCE 10,500 BCE 10,000 BCE 9,500 BCE 9,000 BCE 8,500 BCE 8,000 BCE 7,500 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,500 BCE 5,000 BCE 4,500 BCE 4,000 BCE 3,500 BCE 3,000 BCE 2,500 BCE 2,000 BCE 1,500 BCE 1,000 BCE 500 BCE 0 CE 500 CE  
 
11,700 BCE: End of the most recent glacial episode within the current Quaternary Ice Age.
 
 
10,000 BCE: Beginnings of agriculture in the Middle East.
 
 
9,000 BCE: Cultivation of wild cereals in the Fertile Crescent.
 
 
8,000 BCE: Ovens in use in the Near East are applied to pottery production.
 
 
7,600 BCE - 610 BCE: Cylinder Seals in use throughout Mesopotamia.
 
 
7,600 BCE - 6,000 BCE: Stamp Seals and Cylinder Seals develop in Mesopotamia.
 
6,000 BCE: Nineveh is first settled.
 
5,400 BCE: The City of Eridu is founded.
 
5,400 BCE: Shrines to Enki built at the city of Eridu in Mesopotamia.
 
5,000 BCE: Sumer inhabited by Ubaid people.
 
5,000 BCE - 4,100 BCE: The Ubaid Period in Sumer.
 
5,000 BCE: Godin Tepe settled
 
 
5,000 BCE - 1,750 BCE: Sumerian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
 
 
5,000 BCE: Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.
 
4,500 BCE: The City of Uruk founded.
 
4,500 BCE: Mother Goddess, precursor to Ninhursag, worshipped in Mesopotamia during Ubaid Period.
 
4,500 BCE: First walled cities. Uruk in Mesopotamia first city.
 
 
4,500 BCE: The Sumerians built their first temple.
 
4,100 BCE - 2,900 BCE: Uruk Period in Sumer.
 
4,100 BCE - 2,900 BCE: Uruk Period in Mesopotamia. First cities.
 
4,000 BCE: First settlement of Ur.
 
 
3,600 BCE: Invention of writing in Sumer at Uruk.
 
 
3,400 BCE: Priests become the rulers of Mesopotamian cities.
 
 
3,000 BCE: Sumer civilization in Mesopotamia use gold in jewellery manufacture.
 
 
3,000 BCE - 2,900 BCE: Mari, the earliest known planned city, is built near the eastern bank of the Euphrates.
 
2,900 BCE - 2,334 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Sumer.
 
2,900 BCE - 2,700 BCE: Ninhursag first appears in written works during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
 
2,900 BCE - 2,700 BCE: Enlil first mentioned as Sumerian god during the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia.
 
 
2,500 BCE: First Dynasty of Lagash under King Eannutum is first empire in Mesopotamia.
 
2,400 BCE: Earliest Sumerian sources to mention migrating Amorites in Mesopotamia.
 
2,400 BCE: Enki worshipped as Ea by the Akkadians of Mesopotamia; becomes popular throughout the region.
 
2,400 BCE: First use of war chariots in Mesopotamia.
 
 
2,350 BCE: First code of laws by Urukagina, king of Lagash.
 
2,334 BCE - 2,083 BCE: Enlil worshipped during the time of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.
 
 
2,334 BCE - 2,279 BCE: Sargon of Akkad (the Great) reigns over Mesopotamia and thus creates the world's first empire.
 
 
2,334 BCE - 2,218 BCE: The Akkadian Empire rules Sumer.
 
 
2,330 BCE: Sargon of Akkad sacks Ur.
 
2,218 BCE - 2,047 BCE: The Gutian Period in Sumer.
 
 
2,150 BCE - 1,400 BCE: The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh written on clay tablets.
 
 
2,100 BCE: The Reign of Utu-Hegal at Uruk in Sumer and creation of Sumerian King List.
 
 
2,100 BCE: First ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur.
 
2,083 BCE - 2,050 BCE: The Dark Age of Mesopotamia.
 
2,055 BCE - 2,047 BCE: Utu Hegel's reign over Sumerian and Akkadian cities.
 
2,050 BCE: The Code of Ur-Nammu (the earliest known code of laws) is written.
 
 
2,047 BCE - 1,750 BCE: Third dynasty of Ur.
 
 
2,047 BCE - 1,750 BCE: The Ur III Period in Sumer, known as the Sumerian Renaissance.
 
2,047 BCE - 2,030 BCE: Ur-Nammu's reign over Sumer.
 
 
2,038 BCE: King Shulgi of Ur builds his great wall in Sumer.
 
 
2,000 BCE: Domesticated horses introduced in Mesopotamia.
 
2,000 BCE - 1,600 BCE: Older dog goddess Bau becomes healing goddess Gula during the Old Babylonian Period in Mesopotamia.
 
 
2,000 BCE - 1,600 BCE: Amorite period in Mesopotamia.
 
1,900 BCE: Ashur, capial of Assyria, is founded.
 
1,900 BCE - 1,400 BCE: Trade flourishes between Mesopotamia and other regions.
 
 
1,900 BCE: The first aqueducts were constructed in Mesopotamia and on Minoan Crete
 
1,900 BCE: Assur credited as patron god of the City of Ashur in Mesopotamia.
 
1,894 BCE: Amorite dynasty established in Babylon.
 
 
1,800 BCE - 1,750 BCE: Probable period of composition for The Queen of the Night in southern Mesopotamia.
 
1,795 BCE - 1,750 BCE: Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.
 
1,792 BCE - 1,750 BCE: Female deities in Mesopotamia decline in status during the reign of Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon; but not Gula.
 
 
1,792 BCE: King Hammurabi builds walls of Babylon.
 
 
1,787 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin.
 
 
1,772 BCE: The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.
 
 
1,760 BCE - 1,757 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari. The people of Mari are spared according to Hammurabi.
 
 
1,755 BCE: Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.
 
 
1,750 BCE: Elamite invasion and Amorite migration ends the Sumerian civilization.
 
 
1,750 BCE: Elam conquers Ur.
 
 
1,745 BCE - 1,740 BCE: Amorites migrate from Mesopotamia to Canaan.
 
1,680 BCE: Hurrians occupy Assyria.
 
 
1,595 BCE: Hittites under Mursilli I sack Babylon, ending Amorite rule.
 
 
1,595 BCE: King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon. Begin of Babylonian "dark ages."
 
1,550 BCE: Kingdom of Mittani is founded.
 
1,500 BCE: Rise of the kingdom of Mitanni.
 
1,500 BCE: Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
 
 
1,472 BCE: Mittani annexes Assyria.
 
1,400 BCE: Assyria regains its independence.
 
1,350 BCE: Peak of Mitanni power, it is considered a great nation.
 
1,350 BCE - 1,250 BCE: The Hittite empire is at its peak.
 
 
1,344 BCE - 1,322 BCE: King Suppiluliumas I of the Hittites sacks the Mitanni capital Washukanni and installs Artatama II as vassal king.
 
 
1,321 BCE: Western Mittani is conquered by the Hittites.
 
 
1,300 BCE - 612 BCE: Assur is recognized as the supreme god of the Assyrians who legitimizes their empire in Mesopotamia and beyond.
 
1,285 BCE: Peak of Hittite power.
 
 
1,244 BCE - 1,208 BCE: Reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, King of Assyria.
 
1,220 BCE: Babylon is under Assyrian control.
 
 
1,080 BCE: Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia.
 
1,000 BCE: Chaldeans occupy Ur.
 
 
853 BCE: Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
 
734 BCE: Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.
 
729 BCE: Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
 
722 BCE - 705 BCE: Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
 
612 BCE: Ninhursag no longer worshipped in Mesopotamia. .
 
612 BCE: Downfall of the Assyrian empire.
 
605 BCE - 562 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II is king of Babylon.
 
 
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
 
 
500 BCE - 330 BCE: The Achaemenid Empire rules in Mesopotamia, Persian Royal Road in use.
 
 
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
 
 
323 BCE - 31 BCE: The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
 
 
312 BCE: Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
 
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.
 
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Nisaba continues to be worshiped in Mesopotamia during the Seleucid Period.
 
 
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
 
 
100 BCE: Ctesiphon becomes Parthian capital.
 
 
115 CE - 116 CE: The Roman Empire conquers Mesopotamia.
 
115 CE - 117 CE: Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
 
 
224 CE: Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
 
 
234 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
 
 
262 CE - 266 CE: Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
 
 
637 CE: Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12,000 BCE 10,000 BCE 8,000 BCE 6,000 BCE 4,000 BCE 2,000 BCE

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