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632 CE: Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
632 CE - 634 CE: Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
634 CE - 644 CE: 'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
644 CE - 656 CE: 'Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
651 CE: Arab Rashidun Caliphate conquers the Sasanian Empire.
656 CE - 661 CE: Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
680 CE: Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
750 CE: Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
750 CE: Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
756 CE: Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
909 CE - 1171 CE: Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt.
1258 CE: The Mongols conquer the Abbasid Caliphate. During this campaign there is the infamous sacking of Baghdad and murder of the caliph.
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