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402 BCE - 318 BCE: Life of Athenian statesman and general Phocion.
330 BCE - 64 BCE: Hellenistic Period in Byblos.
325 BCE - 320 BCE: Greek rule in Gandhara, ending some time after the death of Alexander the Great.
323 BCE: Death of Alexander the Great, beginning of The Hellenistic Period / The Hellenistic World.
322 BCE - 320 BCE: First Successor War between Alexander's successors.
319 BCE - 315 BCE: Second Successor War between Alexander's successors.
314 BCE - 311 BCE: Third Successor War between Alexander's successors.
312 BCE: Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
310 BCE: Assassination of Roxanne and Alexander IV, wife and son of Alexander the Great.
309 BCE - 308 BCE: Agathocles of Syracuse successfuly campaigns in North Africa defeating Carthaginian armies and taking Utica and Hippacra.
308 BCE - 301 BCE: Fourth Successor War between Alexander's successors.
306 BCE: Demetrius I defeats Ptolemy’s fleet at Salamis, off the coast of Cyprus.
306 BCE: Epicurus buys a garden in Athens in which he begins to teach Epicureanism.
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.
301 BCE: The Battle of Ipsus in central Phrygia where Lysimachus and Seleucus I defeat Antigonus I and Demetrius I.
301 BCE - 320 BCE: Doric temple to Athena and fortifications of Lysimachus built at Troy.
295 BCE: Demetrius I campaigns in central Greece, removes the tyrant Lachares from Athens and defeats Sparta.
294 BCE - 288 BCE: Demetrius I rules as king of Macedon.
287 BCE - 212 BCE: Life of Archimedes, physician, mathematician and engineer.
285 BCE - 282 BCE: Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
280 BCE - 275 BCE: King Pyrrhus of Epirus wages the Pyrrhic War against the Romans in Italy, defence of Tarentum being the pretext.
280 BCE: Founding of the Achaean League in the Peloponnese of Greece.
279 BCE: Celts invade Thrace and Anatolia.
272 BCE: Death of Pyrrhus of Epirus in a street battle in Argos.
270 BCE: Aristarchus of Samos proposes a heliocentric world view.
263 BCE - 241 BCE: Reign of Eumenes I at Pergamon
262 BCE: Eumenes rebels and wins against the Seleucid Antiochos I. Beginning of the Pergamon Empire.
250 BCE: Former satrap Diodotos rebels against Seleucid king Antiochos I, creating the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.
241 BCE - 197 BCE: Reign of Attalus I at Pergamon.
222 BCE: The Achaean League and Antigonos III of Macedon defeat Sparta at Sellasia.
190 BCE: First appearance of multiple Euthydemid kings at the same time. Beginning of the Indo-Greek kingdoms.
189 BCE: The treaty of Apameea Kibotos. Peace and alliance is established between the Seleucid Kingdom and Rome joined by her allies, such as Pergamon and Rhodes. The Seleucids have to evacuate all the land and the cities from Asia Minor and to pay a huge war indemnity.
172 BCE - 168 BCE: Third Macedonian War: Perseus of Macedon challenges Rome and is defeated.
147 BCE - 139 BCE: The Lusitanian commander Viriatus bleeds Roman armies.
146 BCE: End of the Third Punic War. Carthage is destroyed and its lands become the Roman province Africa.
146 BCE: Rome sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league. Greece is ruled by Rome.
133 BCE: Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathes the whole of Pergamon to Rome.
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
89 BCE - 63 BCE: Mithridatic Wars between Mithridates VI and Roman Republic .
83 BCE: Tigranes II invades and destroys the Seleucid Empire.
58 BCE - 51 BCE: Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul.
37 BCE: Herod the Great is installed as King of Judaea. Rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem.
30 BCE - 19 BCE: Roman poet Virgil writes his Aeneid.