Greek Warfare Timeline

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800 BCE 700 BCE 600 BCE 500 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE 200 BCE  
 
 
800 BCE - 500 BCE: Greek colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
 
800 BCE - 700 BCE: Homer's Iliad is composed with mention of medical treatment in Greek warfare.
 
 
700 BCE: Corinthians adopt the trireme from the Phoenicians.
 
 
660 BCE: Corcyra wins a naval battle against their founding city of Corinth.
 
650 BCE: Sparta crushes Messenian revolt.
 
650 BCE - 350 BCE: Hoplites are the major protagonists in Greek land warfare.
 
 
580 BCE - 376 BCE: Carthage and Greece fight for dominance in Sicily.
 
 
550 BCE - 366 BCE: Peloponnesian League alliance between Sparta, Corinth, Elis and Tegea which establishes Spartan hegemony over the Peloponnese.
 
 
539 BCE: Etruscan & Carthaginian alliance expels the Greeks from Corsica.
 
 
525 BCE: Sparta and Corinth unsuccessfully attack Polycrates of Samos.
 
499 BCE - 494 BCE: Ionian cities rebel against Persian rule.
 
 
494 BCE - 493 BCE: Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the city of Argos.
 
493 BCE: The first fortifications are constructed at Athens' port of Piraeus.
 
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
 
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
 
483 BCE: Themistocles persuades the Athenians to significantly expand their fleet, which saves them at Salamis and becomes their source of power.
 
480 BCE: Thebes sides with Persia during Xerxes invasion of Greece.
 
 
480 BCE: Tyrant of Syracuse Gelon defeats the Carthaginians at the battle of Himera.
 
480 BCE: Agrigento defeats Carthage at the battle of Himera.
 
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
 
480 BCE: The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
 
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet led by Themistocles defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
 
 
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
 
 
478 BCE: Spartan general Pausanias is given command of a force and takes both Cyprus and Byzantium.
 
 
476 BCE - 463 BCE: Delian League operations are led by Athenian commander Cimon
 
 
475 BCE: Athenian general Cimon defeats Spartan general Pausanias and takes Byzantium.
 
 
466 BCE: Athenian general Cimon twice defeats the Persians at Eurymedon on the southern coast of Asia Minor.
 
 
465 BCE - 463 BCE: Athenian general Cimon conquers Chersonesus in Thrace and the north-Aegean island of Thasos.
 
460 BCE - 445 BCE: First Peloponnesian War.
 
 
457 BCE: Sparta wins the battle of Tanagra during the 1st Peloponnesian War with Athens.
 
 
453 BCE: Pericles erects trophy at Nemea after Athenian victory over the Sikyonians.
 
 
450 BCE: Athenian general Cimon dies on Cyprus fighting the Persians.
 
448 BCE: Pericles leads the Athenian forces in the Battle of Delphi.
 
440 BCE: Hoplites become increasingly lighter-armoured, as new battle tactics required more mobility.
 
 
433 BCE: A naval battle between the victorious combined forces of Corcyra and Athens against Corinth.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The Cycladic city states side with Athens in the Peloponnesian war against Sparta and her allies.
 
431 BCE: Athens invades Megara.
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: Thebes sides with Sparta against Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
 
429 BCE: Athens successfully campaigns in the Corinthian Gulf regions during the Peloponnesian War.
 
 
429 BCE: Peloponnesian forces led by Sparta begin the siege of Plataea.
 
 
427 BCE: Plataea finally falls to the Spartans after a two year siege.
 
425 BCE: Pylos campaign, under Cleon and Demosthenes' command Athens defeats Sparta at Pylos.
 
425 BCE: Athenian and Corinthian hoplites fight a street battle in the suburbs of Solygeia.
 
425 BCE: Athenians capture Pylos. Spartan general Brasidas is injured in attempting to re-take the city.
 
 
424 BCE: The Athenian expeditions against Megara and Boeotia are a failure with a particularly heavy defeat near Delion.
 
424 BCE: A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the Peloponnese.
 
424 BCE: Spartan Brasidas' campaign in Thrace.
 
 
424 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas takes Amphipolis, Thucydides failed to prevent this and is exiled.
 
422 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas employs Myrkinian and Chalkidian peltasts to defeat a force of Athenian hoplites at Amphipolis.
 
422 BCE: The Athenians, led by Cleon, try to re-take Amphipolis but are defeated by Brasidas.
 
418 BCE: Sparta, led by Agis II, defeats Argos and her allies at the battle of Mantinaea.
 
 
415 BCE: The Histories of Herodotus is published. The work is divided into nine chapters, each dedicated to one of the Muses.
 
 
415 BCE - 413 BCE: Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse.
 
 
415 BCE: Alcibiades persuades the Athenian assembly to send a military expedition to Sicily.
 
414 BCE: Athens constructs fortifications at Sounion.
 
 
413 BCE: The Athenian expedition in Sicily ends in disastrous defeat and the Athenian generals Nicias and Demosthenes are executed.
 
412 BCE: The Spartan general Astyochus sacks Kos.
 
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
 
 
410 BCE: Alcibiades leads the Athenian fleet to victory over Sparta at Cyzicus.
 
 
407 BCE: The Athenian fleet is defeated by Lysander of Sparta at Notium.
 
407 BCE: Athenian general Alcibiades makes his naval base on Samos.
 
406 BCE: Agrigento is attacked and destroyed by Carthage.
 
 
404 BCE: End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
 
 
397 BCE: Dionysius I of Syracuse employs wheeled seige towers and bolt throwers for the first time in Greek warfare at the seige of Motya.
 
 
396 BCE: Spartan Agesilaus II's campaign into Ionia.
 
 
395 BCE - 386 BCE: The Corinthian Wars between Sparta and an alliance of Athens, Corinth, Argos, Boeotia and Thebes.
 
395 BCE: Spartan general Lysander is killed by Theban forces at the Battle of Hallartos.
 
394 BCE: Spartan king Agesilaus II defeats a Theban coalition at the battle of Coronea.
 
390 BCE: Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near Corinth.
 
 
382 BCE - 379 BCE: Sparta establishes a garrison at Thebes.
 
378 BCE - 377 BCE: Spartan king Agesilaus II campaigns in Boeotia.
 
375 BCE: Thebes defeats Sparta at the Battle of Tegyra.
 
 
371 BCE: Thebes, led by Epaminondas, defeats Sparta in the Battle of Leuctra.
 
367 BCE: Celtic mercenaries fight with the Spartans against Thebes.
 
 
366 BCE: Theban general Epaminondas builds a fleet to harass the Athenian Empire.
 
364 BCE: Theban general Pelopidas is victorious but killed at the Battle of Kynoskephalai.
 
364 BCE: Macedonian general Perdikkas III successfully defends Amphipolis against Athenian attack.
 
362 BCE: Indecisive Battle of Matinea where Thebes fought against Sparta and Athens. Theban general Epaminondas is killed.
 
 
349 BCE: Phocion leads an Athenian campaign in Euboea.
 
 
340 BCE: Phocion defeats Philip II of Macedon at Byzantium.
 
338 BCE: Philip of Macedonia defeats the Greek allied forces of Athens, Thebes and Corinth in the Battle of Chaironeia.
 
334 BCE: Alexander invades the Persian empire.
 
327 BCE: The argyraspides, a special unit of hypaspist, is formed.
 
 
284 BCE: Lysimachus drives Pyrrhus out of Macedon.
 
 
280 BCE - 275 BCE: King Pyrrhus of Epirus wages the Pyrrhic War against the Romans in Italy, defence of Tarentum being the pretext.
 
280 BCE: Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the Battle of Heraclea.
 
279 BCE: Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the Battle of Asculum.
 
 
275 BCE: The Romans defeat Pyrrhus of Epirus at the Battle of Maleventum.
 
 
273 BCE: Pyrrhus of Epirus attacks Macedon and Sparta.
 
 
229 BCE: Corcyra is captured by the Illyrians.
 
225 BCE: Macedonians bring an army across the Isthmus to face another Achaian force trying to take Corinth.
 
 
205 BCE: Philip V of Macedon take Samos.
 
 
146 BCE: Rome sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league. Greece is ruled by Rome.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
800 BCE 700 BCE 600 BCE 500 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE 200 BCE

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