544 BCEFoundation of Cyropolis on the Iaxartes river.
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553 BCE: Cyrus the Great successfully rebels against the Medes and establishes the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
550 BCE: Cyrus the Great defeats Astyages of the Medes and decides to found Pasargadae at the site of the battle.
546 BCE: Cyrus the Great begins construction of Pasargadae.
544 BCE: Foundation of Cyropolis on the Iaxartes river.
539 BCE: Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon; the Fertile Crescent is controlled by the Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire).
530 BCE: Cyrus II killed by the Massagetae of Tomyris’ army near the Iaxartes.
400 BCE: Remains of Cyrus the Younger's Persian army arrive in Trapezus.