Byzantine Empire Timeline

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  • 285 CE
    The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
  • 313 CE
    Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
  • 11 May 330 CE
    Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”
  • 361 CE
    Roman emperor Julian attempts to revive Paganism.
  • 376 CE
    The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 378 CE
    The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.
  • 391 CE
    Emperor Theodosius closes pagan temples.
  • 395 CE - 637 CE
    Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
  • 469 CE
    The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
  • 491 CE - 518 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).
  • 525 CE
    Justinian I marries Theodora, a woman from a poor background and possibly a courtesan.
  • c. 527 CE - 646 CE
    The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
  • 527 CE - 565 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
  • 531 CE - 534 CE
    Byzantine forces engaged in a series of military campaigns against the Slavs and other groups.
  • 533 CE - 534 CE
    The Vandal War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed a reconquering Africa from the Vandals.
  • 533 CE
    Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
  • 534 CE
    Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
  • 535 CE
    Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
  • 536 CE
    Rome falls to Belisarius.
  • 536 CE - 562 CE
    The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
  • 545 CE
    Belisarius' second campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
  • c. 550 CE
    The Slavs advance towards Thessalonica, entering the region of the Hebrus River and the Thracian coast. Thessalonica is saved by the Roman army.
  • 554 CE
    Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
  • Jul 556 CE - c. Jul 572 CE
    Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
  • c. 580 CE
    The Slavs and the Avars overwhelm Greece, Thrace and Thessaly.
  • 585 CE
    The Slavs march on to Constantinople, they are driven off by the Roman defence. .
  • 607 CE - 627 CE
    East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
  • 610 CE - 622 CE
    Heraclius restructures the Eastern Roman empire into the Byzantine empire.
  • 626 CE
    A colaition of Slavs, Avars and Bulgars lay siege to Constantinople, the Romans manage to repel the attack. .
  • 628 CE
    Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
  • 637 CE
    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • 678 CE
    First recorded use of Greek Fire in Byzantine warfare during the Arab siege of Constantinople.
  • c. 691 CE
    Byzantine emperor Justinian II mints the first coins to depict Jesus Christ.
  • 718 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack an Arab fleet besieging Constantinople.
  • 720 CE
    The silver miliaresion coin is introduced in the Byzantine Empire.
  • 741 CE - 775 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine V
  • 744 CE
    Emperor Constantine V regains the Byzantine throne from the usurper Artabasdos.
  • 746 CE - 752 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V conducts successful campaigns in northern Syria and Armenia.
  • 754 CE
    The Council of Hieria declares the worship of icons by Christians as heresy.
  • 755 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V instigates a persecution of Christians who worship icons.
  • 756 CE - 775 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V wins a string of military victories against the Bulgars.
  • 780 CE - 790 CE
    Empress Irene rules as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VI.
  • Sep 787 CE
    The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea rules an end to iconoclasm in the Byzantine Christian Church.
  • 797 CE - 802 CE
    Empress Irene rules the Byzantine empire.
  • 797 CE
    Byzantine empress Irene blinds and kills her son Constantine VI.
  • 821 CE - 822 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack a Slav fleet besieging Constantinople.
  • 842 CE - 855 CE
    Theodora rules as regent for her son Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine empire.
  • 842 CE - 867 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael III.
  • 855 CE - 856 CE
    Michael III removes his mother Theodora, the regent, and rules alone as emperor of the Byzantine empire.
  • 856 CE
    The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.
  • 863 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Saint Cyril and Methodius on a mission to Moravia.
  • 864 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III presides over the baptism of Boris I, khan of the Bulgars.
  • 866 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III makes Basil the Macedonian co-emperor.
  • 867 CE - 886 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil I.
  • 867 CE
    Basil the Macedonian murders Byzantine emperor Michael III and declares himself Emperor Basil I.
  • 886 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil I is murdered by his son and successor Leo VI.
  • 941 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Romanos I's fleet against a Russian fleet attacking Constantinople.
  • 963 CE - 969 CE
    Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas introduces the gold tetarteron coin (one-twelfth of a gold nomisma in value).
  • 972 CE
    Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces uses Greek Fire to take the Bulgar capital of Preslav, then in Russian hands.
  • 976 CE - 1,025 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
  • 986 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II suffers a terrible defeat to Samuel the Bulgar at Trajan's Gate.
  • 987 CE - 989 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the usurpers Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas.
  • 995 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Syria against the Fatimids.
  • 997 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II reconquers Greece from Samuel the Bulgar.
  • 1,014 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins final victory against Samuel the Bulgar at Kleidion.
  • 1,021 CE - 1,022 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Armenia and Georgia.
  • 1,025 CE - 1,028 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
  • 1,025 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II dies and his plans to invade Sicily are abandoned.
  • 1,092 CE
    Alexios I Komnenos introduces the electrum hyperpyron coin (worth one-third of a gold nomisma).

Visual Timeline

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Legend:

200 CE 300 CE 400 CE 500 CE 600 CE 700 CE 800 CE 900 CE 1,000 CE  
 
285 CE: The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
 
313 CE: Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
 
330 CE: Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”
 
361 CE: Roman emperor Julian attempts to revive Paganism.
 
376 CE: The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
 
378 CE: The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.
 
391 CE: Emperor Theodosius closes pagan temples.
 
395 CE - 637 CE: Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
 
 
469 CE: The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
 
 
491 CE - 518 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).
 
 
525 CE: Justinian I marries Theodora, a woman from a poor background and possibly a courtesan.
 
 
527 CE - 646 CE: The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
 
527 CE - 565 CE: Reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
 
531 CE - 534 CE: Byzantine forces engaged in a series of military campaigns against the Slavs and other groups.
 
 
533 CE - 534 CE: The Vandal War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed a reconquering Africa from the Vandals.
 
533 CE: Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
 
 
534 CE: Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
 
535 CE: Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
 
536 CE: Rome falls to Belisarius.
 
 
536 CE - 562 CE: The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
 
545 CE: Belisarius' second campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
 
550 CE: The Slavs advance towards Thessalonica, entering the region of the Hebrus River and the Thracian coast. Thessalonica is saved by the Roman army.
 
 
554 CE: Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
 
 
556 CE - 572 CE: Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
 
580 CE: The Slavs and the Avars overwhelm Greece, Thrace and Thessaly.
 
585 CE: The Slavs march on to Constantinople, they are driven off by the Roman defence. .
 
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
 
 
610 CE - 622 CE: Heraclius restructures the Eastern Roman empire into the Byzantine empire.
 
 
626 CE: A colaition of Slavs, Avars and Bulgars lay siege to Constantinople, the Romans manage to repel the attack. .
 
 
628 CE: Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
 
 
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
 
 
678 CE: First recorded use of Greek Fire in Byzantine warfare during the Arab siege of Constantinople.
 
 
691 CE: Byzantine emperor Justinian II mints the first coins to depict Jesus Christ.
 
 
718 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack an Arab fleet besieging Constantinople.
 
 
720 CE: The silver miliaresion coin is introduced in the Byzantine Empire.
 
 
741 CE - 775 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine V
 
 
744 CE: Emperor Constantine V regains the Byzantine throne from the usurper Artabasdos.
 
 
746 CE - 752 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V conducts successful campaigns in northern Syria and Armenia.
 
 
754 CE: The Council of Hieria declares the worship of icons by Christians as heresy.
 
 
755 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V instigates a persecution of Christians who worship icons.
 
 
756 CE - 775 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V wins a string of military victories against the Bulgars.
 
 
780 CE - 790 CE: Empress Irene rules as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VI.
 
 
787 CE: The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea rules an end to iconoclasm in the Byzantine Christian Church.
 
 
797 CE - 802 CE: Empress Irene rules the Byzantine empire.
 
797 CE: Byzantine empress Irene blinds and kills her son Constantine VI.
 
 
821 CE - 822 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack a Slav fleet besieging Constantinople.
 
 
842 CE - 855 CE: Theodora rules as regent for her son Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine empire.
 
 
842 CE - 867 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael III.
 
 
855 CE - 856 CE: Michael III removes his mother Theodora, the regent, and rules alone as emperor of the Byzantine empire.
 
 
856 CE: The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.
 
 
863 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Saint Cyril and Methodius on a mission to Moravia.
 
 
864 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III presides over the baptism of Boris I, khan of the Bulgars.
 
 
866 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III makes Basil the Macedonian co-emperor.
 
 
867 CE - 886 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil I.
 
 
867 CE: Basil the Macedonian murders Byzantine emperor Michael III and declares himself Emperor Basil I.
 
 
886 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil I is murdered by his son and successor Leo VI.
 
 
941 CE: Greek Fire is used by Romanos I's fleet against a Russian fleet attacking Constantinople.
 
 
963 CE - 969 CE: Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas introduces the gold tetarteron coin (one-twelfth of a gold nomisma in value).
 
 
972 CE: Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces uses Greek Fire to take the Bulgar capital of Preslav, then in Russian hands.
 
 
976 CE - 1,025 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
 
 
986 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II suffers a terrible defeat to Samuel the Bulgar at Trajan's Gate.
 
 
987 CE - 989 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the usurpers Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas.
 
 
995 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Syria against the Fatimids.
 
 
997 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II reconquers Greece from Samuel the Bulgar.
 
 
1,014 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins final victory against Samuel the Bulgar at Kleidion.
 
 
1,021 CE - 1,022 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Armenia and Georgia.
 
 
1,025 CE - 1,028 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
 
 
1,025 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II dies and his plans to invade Sicily are abandoned.
 
 
1,092 CE: Alexios I Komnenos introduces the electrum hyperpyron coin (worth one-third of a gold nomisma).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
200 CE 300 CE 400 CE 500 CE 600 CE 700 CE 800 CE 900 CE 1,000 CE

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