Byzantine Empire Timeline

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  • 285 CE
    The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
  • 313 CE
    Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
  • 11 May 330 CE
    Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”
  • 361 CE
    Roman emperor Julian attempts to revive Paganism.
  • 376 CE
    The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 378 CE
    The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.
  • 391 CE
    Emperor Theodosius closes pagan temples.
  • 395 CE - 637 CE
    Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
  • 395 CE - 408 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Arkadios.
  • 408 CE - 450 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Emperor Thedosius II.
  • 410 CE - 413 CE
    The Theodosian Walls are built to better protect Constantinople.
  • 450 CE - 457 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Marcian.
  • 457 CE - 474 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo I.
  • 457 CE
    Leo I is crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople, the first Byzantine emperor to be crowned by a bishop.
  • 466 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo I gives his daughter Ariadne as a wife to the Isaurian chief Tarasicodissa (Zeno).
  • 468 CE
    A Byzantine army led by Basiliscus is defeated by the Vandals in North Africa.
  • 469 CE
    The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
  • 471 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo I conspires to murder his rival the general Aspar.
  • 474 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo II.
  • 491 CE - 518 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).
  • 491 CE - 518 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasios I.
  • c. 493 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds the Long Wall in Thrace to protect Constantinople.
  • 497 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I recognises Theodoric as the King of Italy.
  • 498 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I abolishes the chrysargyron, an unpopular tax on business transactions.
  • c. 504 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I retakes the fortress of Amida on the Persian frontier.
  • 505 CE - 507 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds a new fortress at Anastasiopolis (Dara) on the frontier with Persia.
  • 506 CE
    A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Persians.
  • 507 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I sends Childeric, the king of the Franks in Gaul, a fleet to aid his war with the Ostrogoths.
  • 513 CE - 515 CE
    Vitalian leads a revolt in Byzantine Thrace.
  • 518 CE - 527 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin I.
  • 525 CE
    Justinian I marries Theodora, a woman from a poor background and possibly a courtesan.
  • 527 CE - 565 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
  • c. 527 CE - 646 CE
    The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
  • 531 CE - 534 CE
    Byzantine forces engaged in a series of military campaigns against the Slavs and other groups.
  • 533 CE - 534 CE
    The Vandal War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed a reconquering Africa from the Vandals.
  • 533 CE
    Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
  • 534 CE
    Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
  • 535 CE
    Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
  • 536 CE - 562 CE
    The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
  • 536 CE
    Rome falls to Belisarius.
  • 545 CE
    Belisarius' second campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
  • c. 550 CE
    The Slavs advance towards Thessalonica, entering the region of the Hebrus River and the Thracian coast. Thessalonica is saved by the Roman army.
  • 554 CE
    Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
  • Jul 556 CE - c. Jul 572 CE
    Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
  • 565 CE - 578 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin II.
  • 578 CE - 582 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberius II.
  • c. 580 CE
    The Slavs and the Avars overwhelm Greece, Thrace and Thessaly.
  • 582 CE - 602 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Maurice.
  • 585 CE
    The Slavs march on to Constantinople, they are driven off by the Roman defence.
  • 602 CE - 610 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Phocas.
  • 607 CE - 627 CE
    East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
  • 610 CE - 641 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraclius.
  • 626 CE
    A coalition of Persians, Slavs, Avars and Bulgars unsuccessfully lays siege to Constantinople.
  • 627 CE
    Byzantine emperor Heraclius wins a crushing victory over the Persian army at Nineveh.
  • 628 CE
    Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
  • 636 CE
    A Byzantine army is crushed by an Arab force at the battle of Yarmuk.
  • 637 CE
    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • 641 CE - 668 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constans II.
  • 641 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraklonas.
  • 641 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine III.
  • 642 CE
    Byzantine Alexandria falls to the Arab Caliphate.
  • 649 CE
    The Arab Caliphate attacks Byzantine Cyprus.
  • 654 CE
    Byzantine Crete, Kos and Rhodes fall to the Arab Caliphate.
  • 655 CE
    A Byzantine fleet is destroyed by the Arab Caliphate off the coast of Lycia.
  • 659 CE
    A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Caliphate.
  • 668 CE - 685 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine IV.
  • 674 CE - 678 CE
    The Arab Umayyad Caliphate unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
  • 678 CE
    First recorded use of Greek Fire in Byzantine warfare during the Arab siege of Constantinople.
  • 679 CE
    The Umayyad Caliphate is obliged by treaty to give up former Byzantine territories in the Aegean.
  • 680 CE - 681 CE
    The Sixth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople declares the end of Monotheletism and Monoenergism.
  • 680 CE
    A Byzantine naval fleet is defeated by the Bulgars.
  • 681 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine IV signs a peace treaty with the Bulgars.
  • 685 CE - 695 CE
    First reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • c. 691 CE
    Byzantine emperor Justinian II mints the first coins to depict Jesus Christ.
  • 695 CE - 698 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leontios.
  • 695 CE
    The usurper Leontios exiles Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 698 CE - 705 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberios II.
  • 698 CE
    The Byzantine ruler Leontios is exiled by the usurper Apsimar (aka Tiberios III).
  • 705 CE - 711 CE
    Second reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 705 CE
    Justinian II besieges Constantinople and reinstates himself as Byzantine emperor, removing the usurper Tiberios III.
  • 709 CE
    Byzantine Tyana in Cappadocia is lost to the Arabs.
  • 4 Nov 711 CE
    The general and usurper Philippikos murders Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 711 CE - 713 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Philippikos.
  • 711 CE
    Pope Constantine visits Constantinople at the invitation of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 713 CE - 716 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasius II
  • 716 CE - 717 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Theodosius III.
  • 717 CE - 718 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack an Arab fleet besieging Constantinople.
  • 717 CE - 741 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo III.
  • 717 CE - 802 CE
    The Isaurian dynasty, founded by Leo III, rules the Byzantine Empire.
  • 720 CE - 721 CE
    The silver miliaresion coin is introduced in the Byzantine Empire by Leo III.
  • 726 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo III makes legal reforms, publishing his Ecloga.
  • 730 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo III decrees that all religious icons be destroyed.
  • 740 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo III wins a decisive victory over the Arabs at the battle of Akroinon.
  • 741 CE - 775 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine V
  • 744 CE
    Emperor Constantine V regains the Byzantine throne from the usurper Artabasdos.
  • 746 CE - 752 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V conducts successful campaigns in northern Syria and Armenia.
  • 754 CE
    The Council of Hieria declares the worship of icons by Christians as heresy.
  • 755 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V instigates a persecution of Christians who worship icons.
  • 756 CE - 775 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V wins a string of military victories against the Bulgars.
  • 775 CE - 780 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo IV.
  • 780 CE - 790 CE
    Empress Irene rules as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VI.
  • 780 CE - 797 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VI (with Empress Iren as regent 780-790 CE).
  • Sep 787 CE
    The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea rules an end to iconoclasm in the Byzantine Christian Church.
  • 790 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine VI exiles his mother and regent Empress Irene.
  • 795 CE
    Constantine VI divorces Mary of Amnia and then marries his mistress Theodote, causing the so-called Moechian Controversy, which divides the Byzantine Church.
  • 797 CE - 802 CE
    Empress Irene rules the Byzantine empire.
  • 797 CE
    Byzantine empress Irene blinds and kills her son Constantine VI.
  • 802 CE - 811 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
  • 807 CE
    A peace treaty is signed between king of the Franks Charlemagne and Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
  • 811 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Stavrakios.
  • 811 CE - 813 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael I.
  • 813 CE - 820 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian.
  • 814 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian defeats a Bulgar army near Mesembria.
  • 815 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian proclaims the veneration of icons as heresy.
  • 820 CE - 829 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael II.
  • 820 CE - 823 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael II puts down a revolt led by Thomas the Slav.
  • 821 CE - 822 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack a Slav fleet besieging Constantinople.
  • 829 CE - 842 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Theophilos.
  • 830 CE - 831 CE
    Byzantine emperor Theophilos wins victories in Cilica and awards himself a triumph.
  • 838 CE
    The Arab Caliphate defeats a Byzantine army and captures the cities of Ankara and Amorion.
  • 839 CE
    The Byzantine empire loses Taranto in southern Italy to the western Arabs.
  • 842 CE - 867 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael III.
  • 842 CE - 855 CE
    Theodora rules as regent for her son Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine empire.
  • 855 CE - 856 CE
    Michael III removes his mother Theodora, the regent, and rules alone as emperor of the Byzantine empire.
  • 856 CE
    The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.
  • 863 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Saint Cyril and Methodius on a mission to Moravia.
  • 864 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III presides over the baptism of Boris I, khan of the Bulgars.
  • 866 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III makes Basil the Macedonian co-emperor.
  • 867 CE - 886 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil I.
  • 867 CE
    Basil the Macedonian murders Byzantine emperor Michael III and declares himself Emperor Basil I.
  • 886 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil I is (probably) murdered by his son and successor Leo VI.
  • 886 CE - 912 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo VI.
  • 894 CE
    Symeon, Tsar of the Bulgars, invades Thrace, then Byzantine territory.
  • 1 Aug 902 CE
    Byzantine Taormina on Sicily falls to Arab attacks.
  • 904 CE
    Leo of Tripoli leads an Arab force which sacks Byzantine Thessaloniki and Abydos.
  • 912 CE - 913 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexander.
  • 912 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine VII inherits the throne but is served by four consecutive regents.
  • 920 CE - 944 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos I.
  • 920 CE
    Romanos I's Tome of Union reconciles the rift in the Byzantine Church caused by Leo VI's third and fourth marriages.
  • 922 CE
    Byzantine emperor Romanos I passes a law to protect the land of the peasantry.
  • 934 CE
    A Byzantine army captures Melitene in Cappadocia.
  • 941 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Romanos I's fleet against a Russian fleet attacking Constantinople.
  • 943 CE
    A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas captures the border Mesopotamians fortresses of Nisibis, Dara, Amida, and Martyropolis.
  • 944 CE
    A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas besieges Edessa.
  • 945 CE - 959 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VII (ruled with a regent from 912 CE).
  • 963 CE - 969 CE
    Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas introduces the gold tetarteron coin (one-twelfth of a gold nomisma in value).
  • 972 CE
    Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces uses Greek Fire to take the Bulgar capital of Preslav, then in Russian hands.
  • 976 CE - 1,025 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
  • 986 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II suffers a terrible defeat to Samuel the Bulgar at Trajan's Gate.
  • 987 CE - 989 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the usurpers Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas.
  • 994 CE
    Trdat the Architect completes his reconstruction of the dome of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.
  • 995 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Syria against the Fatimids.
  • 997 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II reconquers Greece from Samuel the Bulgar.
  • 1,014 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins final victory against Samuel the Bulgar at Kleidion.
  • 1,018 CE - c. 1,082 CE
    Life of Byzantine minister, scholar, and historian Michael Psellos.
  • 1,021 CE - 1,022 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Armenia and Georgia.
  • 1,025 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II dies and his plans to invade Sicily are abandoned.
  • 1,025 CE - 1,028 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
  • 1,081 CE - 1,082 CE
    The Normans, led by Robert Guiscard, attack Byzantine Greece.
  • Apr 1,081 CE - Aug 1,118 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
  • 1,082 CE
    Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos grants trade access and privileges to the Venetians in return for naval support.
  • 1,084 CE
    The Normans defeat a Venetian naval force, allies of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1,085 CE
    Alexios I Komnenos recaptures Dyracchion from the Normans.
  • 1,087 CE - 1,090 CE
    The Pechenegs attack Byzantine Thrace.
  • 29 Apr 1,091 CE
    A Byzantine army, with Cumans as allies, defeats the Pechenegs at the battle of Mount Lebounion.
  • 1,092 CE
    Alexios I Komnenos introduces the electrum hyperpyron coin (worth one-third of a gold nomisma).
  • 1,095 CE
    Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos quashes a rebellion led by Nikephoros Diogenes.
  • 1,097 CE
    The First Crusaders capture Nicaea.
  • Jun 1,098 CE
    The First Crusaders capture Antioch.
  • 1,107 CE
    The Normans, led by Bohemund, besiege Dyracchion.
  • 1,108 CE
    The Treaty of Devol is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans, removing any Norman threat from the empire's territory.
  • 1,118 CE - 1,143 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos.
  • 1,122 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Pechenegs in the Balkans.
  • 1,126 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos restores the trade privileges given to the Venetians.
  • 1,129 CE
    Serbia is obliged to accept Byzantine sovereignty.
  • 1,130 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Danishmendids in Asia Minor.
  • 1,133 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos celebrates a triumph in Constantinople after five successful campaigns in Asia Minor.
  • 1,137 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos conquers the Rubenids in Armenia and occupies the capital at Anazarbos.
  • 1,138 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos besieges and takes the city of Shaizar in Syria.
  • 1,143 CE - 1,180 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
  • 1,144 CE - 1,146 CE
    Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos wins victories in Cilicia, Syria and Asia Minor.
  • 1,147 CE - 1,149 CE
    The Second Crusade led by Louis VII and Conrad III.
  • 1,149 CE
    A fleet led by George of Antioch attacks Constantinople.
  • 1,155 CE - 1,157 CE
    The Byzantines unsuccessfully invade southern Italy.
  • 1,158 CE
    Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos signs a treaty with William I of Sicily.
  • 1,171 CE
    Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos arrests 10,000 Venetian traders across the empire to limit their stranglehold on trade.
  • 17 Sep 1,176 CE
    A Byzantine army is ambushed by the Seljuks at the battle of Myriokephalon in Phyrgia.
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Legend:

200 CE 300 CE 400 CE 500 CE 600 CE 700 CE 800 CE 900 CE 1,000 CE 1,100 CE  
 
285 CE: The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
 
313 CE: Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
 
330 CE: Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”
 
361 CE: Roman emperor Julian attempts to revive Paganism.
 
376 CE: The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
 
378 CE: The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.
 
391 CE: Emperor Theodosius closes pagan temples.
 
395 CE - 637 CE: Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
 
 
395 CE - 408 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Arkadios.
 
 
408 CE - 450 CE: Reign of Byzantine Emperor Thedosius II.
 
 
410 CE - 413 CE: The Theodosian Walls are built to better protect Constantinople.
 
 
450 CE - 457 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Marcian.
 
 
457 CE - 474 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo I.
 
 
457 CE: Leo I is crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople, the first Byzantine emperor to be crowned by a bishop.
 
 
466 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo I gives his daughter Ariadne as a wife to the Isaurian chief Tarasicodissa (Zeno).
 
 
468 CE: A Byzantine army led by Basiliscus is defeated by the Vandals in North Africa.
 
 
469 CE: The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
 
 
471 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo I conspires to murder his rival the general Aspar.
 
 
474 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo II.
 
 
491 CE - 518 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).
 
 
491 CE - 518 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasios I.
 
 
493 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds the Long Wall in Thrace to protect Constantinople.
 
 
497 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I recognises Theodoric as the King of Italy.
 
 
498 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I abolishes the chrysargyron, an unpopular tax on business transactions.
 
 
504 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I retakes the fortress of Amida on the Persian frontier.
 
 
505 CE - 507 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds a new fortress at Anastasiopolis (Dara) on the frontier with Persia.
 
506 CE: A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Persians.
 
 
507 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I sends Childeric, the king of the Franks in Gaul, a fleet to aid his war with the Ostrogoths.
 
513 CE - 515 CE: Vitalian leads a revolt in Byzantine Thrace.
 
 
518 CE - 527 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin I.
 
 
525 CE: Justinian I marries Theodora, a woman from a poor background and possibly a courtesan.
 
527 CE - 565 CE: Reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
 
 
527 CE - 646 CE: The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
 
531 CE - 534 CE: Byzantine forces engaged in a series of military campaigns against the Slavs and other groups.
 
 
533 CE - 534 CE: The Vandal War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed a reconquering Africa from the Vandals.
 
533 CE: Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
 
 
534 CE: Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
 
535 CE: Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
 
 
536 CE - 562 CE: The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
 
536 CE: Rome falls to Belisarius.
 
545 CE: Belisarius' second campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
 
550 CE: The Slavs advance towards Thessalonica, entering the region of the Hebrus River and the Thracian coast. Thessalonica is saved by the Roman army.
 
 
554 CE: Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
 
 
556 CE - 572 CE: Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
 
 
565 CE - 578 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin II.
 
 
578 CE - 582 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberius II.
 
580 CE: The Slavs and the Avars overwhelm Greece, Thrace and Thessaly.
 
 
582 CE - 602 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Maurice.
 
585 CE: The Slavs march on to Constantinople, they are driven off by the Roman defence.
 
 
602 CE - 610 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Phocas.
 
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
 
 
610 CE - 641 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraclius.
 
 
626 CE: A coalition of Persians, Slavs, Avars and Bulgars unsuccessfully lays siege to Constantinople.
 
 
627 CE: Byzantine emperor Heraclius wins a crushing victory over the Persian army at Nineveh.
 
 
628 CE: Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
 
 
636 CE: A Byzantine army is crushed by an Arab force at the battle of Yarmuk.
 
 
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
 
 
641 CE - 668 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constans II.
 
 
641 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraklonas.
 
 
641 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine III.
 
 
642 CE: Byzantine Alexandria falls to the Arab Caliphate.
 
 
649 CE: The Arab Caliphate attacks Byzantine Cyprus.
 
 
654 CE: Byzantine Crete, Kos and Rhodes fall to the Arab Caliphate.
 
 
655 CE: A Byzantine fleet is destroyed by the Arab Caliphate off the coast of Lycia.
 
 
659 CE: A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Caliphate.
 
 
668 CE - 685 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine IV.
 
 
674 CE - 678 CE: The Arab Umayyad Caliphate unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
 
 
678 CE: First recorded use of Greek Fire in Byzantine warfare during the Arab siege of Constantinople.
 
 
679 CE: The Umayyad Caliphate is obliged by treaty to give up former Byzantine territories in the Aegean.
 
 
680 CE - 681 CE: The Sixth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople declares the end of Monotheletism and Monoenergism.
 
 
680 CE: A Byzantine naval fleet is defeated by the Bulgars.
 
 
681 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine IV signs a peace treaty with the Bulgars.
 
 
685 CE - 695 CE: First reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
 
 
691 CE: Byzantine emperor Justinian II mints the first coins to depict Jesus Christ.
 
 
695 CE - 698 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leontios.
 
 
695 CE: The usurper Leontios exiles Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
 
 
698 CE - 705 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberios II.
 
 
698 CE: The Byzantine ruler Leontios is exiled by the usurper Apsimar (aka Tiberios III).
 
 
705 CE - 711 CE: Second reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
 
 
705 CE: Justinian II besieges Constantinople and reinstates himself as Byzantine emperor, removing the usurper Tiberios III.
 
 
709 CE: Byzantine Tyana in Cappadocia is lost to the Arabs.
 
 
711 CE: The general and usurper Philippikos murders Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
 
 
711 CE - 713 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Philippikos.
 
 
711 CE: Pope Constantine visits Constantinople at the invitation of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
 
 
713 CE - 716 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasius II
 
 
716 CE - 717 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Theodosius III.
 
 
717 CE - 718 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack an Arab fleet besieging Constantinople.
 
 
717 CE - 741 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo III.
 
 
717 CE - 802 CE: The Isaurian dynasty, founded by Leo III, rules the Byzantine Empire.
 
 
720 CE - 721 CE: The silver miliaresion coin is introduced in the Byzantine Empire by Leo III.
 
726 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III makes legal reforms, publishing his Ecloga.
 
 
730 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III decrees that all religious icons be destroyed.
 
 
740 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III wins a decisive victory over the Arabs at the battle of Akroinon.
 
 
741 CE - 775 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine V
 
 
744 CE: Emperor Constantine V regains the Byzantine throne from the usurper Artabasdos.
 
 
746 CE - 752 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V conducts successful campaigns in northern Syria and Armenia.
 
 
754 CE: The Council of Hieria declares the worship of icons by Christians as heresy.
 
 
755 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V instigates a persecution of Christians who worship icons.
 
 
756 CE - 775 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V wins a string of military victories against the Bulgars.
 
 
775 CE - 780 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo IV.
 
 
780 CE - 790 CE: Empress Irene rules as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VI.
 
 
780 CE - 797 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VI (with Empress Iren as regent 780-790 CE).
 
 
787 CE: The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea rules an end to iconoclasm in the Byzantine Christian Church.
 
 
790 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine VI exiles his mother and regent Empress Irene.
 
 
795 CE: Constantine VI divorces Mary of Amnia and then marries his mistress Theodote, causing the so-called Moechian Controversy, which divides the Byzantine Church.
 
 
797 CE - 802 CE: Empress Irene rules the Byzantine empire.
 
797 CE: Byzantine empress Irene blinds and kills her son Constantine VI.
 
 
802 CE - 811 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
 
 
807 CE: A peace treaty is signed between king of the Franks Charlemagne and Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
 
 
811 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Stavrakios.
 
 
811 CE - 813 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael I.
 
 
813 CE - 820 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian.
 
 
814 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian defeats a Bulgar army near Mesembria.
 
 
815 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian proclaims the veneration of icons as heresy.
 
 
820 CE - 829 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael II.
 
 
820 CE - 823 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael II puts down a revolt led by Thomas the Slav.
 
 
821 CE - 822 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack a Slav fleet besieging Constantinople.
 
 
829 CE - 842 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Theophilos.
 
 
830 CE - 831 CE: Byzantine emperor Theophilos wins victories in Cilica and awards himself a triumph.
 
 
838 CE: The Arab Caliphate defeats a Byzantine army and captures the cities of Ankara and Amorion.
 
 
839 CE: The Byzantine empire loses Taranto in southern Italy to the western Arabs.
 
 
842 CE - 867 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael III.
 
 
842 CE - 855 CE: Theodora rules as regent for her son Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine empire.
 
 
855 CE - 856 CE: Michael III removes his mother Theodora, the regent, and rules alone as emperor of the Byzantine empire.
 
 
856 CE: The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.
 
 
863 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Saint Cyril and Methodius on a mission to Moravia.
 
 
864 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III presides over the baptism of Boris I, khan of the Bulgars.
 
 
866 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III makes Basil the Macedonian co-emperor.
 
 
867 CE - 886 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil I.
 
 
867 CE: Basil the Macedonian murders Byzantine emperor Michael III and declares himself Emperor Basil I.
 
 
886 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil I is (probably) murdered by his son and successor Leo VI.
 
 
886 CE - 912 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo VI.
 
894 CE: Symeon, Tsar of the Bulgars, invades Thrace, then Byzantine territory.
 
 
902 CE: Byzantine Taormina on Sicily falls to Arab attacks.
 
 
904 CE: Leo of Tripoli leads an Arab force which sacks Byzantine Thessaloniki and Abydos.
 
 
912 CE - 913 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexander.
 
 
912 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine VII inherits the throne but is served by four consecutive regents.
 
 
920 CE - 944 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos I.
 
 
920 CE: Romanos I's Tome of Union reconciles the rift in the Byzantine Church caused by Leo VI's third and fourth marriages.
 
922 CE: Byzantine emperor Romanos I passes a law to protect the land of the peasantry.
 
 
934 CE: A Byzantine army captures Melitene in Cappadocia.
 
 
941 CE: Greek Fire is used by Romanos I's fleet against a Russian fleet attacking Constantinople.
 
 
943 CE: A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas captures the border Mesopotamians fortresses of Nisibis, Dara, Amida, and Martyropolis.
 
 
944 CE: A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas besieges Edessa.
 
 
945 CE - 959 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VII (ruled with a regent from 912 CE).
 
 
963 CE - 969 CE: Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas introduces the gold tetarteron coin (one-twelfth of a gold nomisma in value).
 
 
972 CE: Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces uses Greek Fire to take the Bulgar capital of Preslav, then in Russian hands.
 
 
976 CE - 1,025 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
 
 
986 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II suffers a terrible defeat to Samuel the Bulgar at Trajan's Gate.
 
 
987 CE - 989 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the usurpers Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas.
 
 
994 CE: Trdat the Architect completes his reconstruction of the dome of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.
 
 
995 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Syria against the Fatimids.
 
 
997 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II reconquers Greece from Samuel the Bulgar.
 
 
1,014 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins final victory against Samuel the Bulgar at Kleidion.
 
1,018 CE - 1,082 CE: Life of Byzantine minister, scholar, and historian Michael Psellos.
 
 
1,021 CE - 1,022 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Armenia and Georgia.
 
 
1,025 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II dies and his plans to invade Sicily are abandoned.
 
 
1,025 CE - 1,028 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
 
 
1,081 CE - 1,082 CE: The Normans, led by Robert Guiscard, attack Byzantine Greece.
 
 
1,081 CE - 1,118 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
 
 
1,082 CE: Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos grants trade access and privileges to the Venetians in return for naval support.
 
 
1,084 CE: The Normans defeat a Venetian naval force, allies of the Byzantine Empire.
 
 
1,085 CE: Alexios I Komnenos recaptures Dyracchion from the Normans.
 
 
1,087 CE - 1,090 CE: The Pechenegs attack Byzantine Thrace.
 
 
1,091 CE: A Byzantine army, with Cumans as allies, defeats the Pechenegs at the battle of Mount Lebounion.
 
 
1,092 CE: Alexios I Komnenos introduces the electrum hyperpyron coin (worth one-third of a gold nomisma).
 
 
1,095 CE: Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos quashes a rebellion led by Nikephoros Diogenes.
 
 
1,097 CE: The First Crusaders capture Nicaea.
 
 
1,098 CE: The First Crusaders capture Antioch.
 
 
1,107 CE: The Normans, led by Bohemund, besiege Dyracchion.
 
 
1,108 CE: The Treaty of Devol is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans, removing any Norman threat from the empire's territory.
 
 
1,118 CE - 1,143 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos.
 
 
1,122 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Pechenegs in the Balkans.
 
 
1,126 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos restores the trade privileges given to the Venetians.
 
 
1,129 CE: Serbia is obliged to accept Byzantine sovereignty.
 
 
1,130 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Danishmendids in Asia Minor.
 
 
1,133 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos celebrates a triumph in Constantinople after five successful campaigns in Asia Minor.
 
 
1,137 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos conquers the Rubenids in Armenia and occupies the capital at Anazarbos.
 
 
1,138 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos besieges and takes the city of Shaizar in Syria.
 
 
1,143 CE - 1,180 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
 
 
1,144 CE - 1,146 CE: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos wins victories in Cilicia, Syria and Asia Minor.
 
 
1,147 CE - 1,149 CE: The Second Crusade led by Louis VII and Conrad III.
 
 
1,149 CE: A fleet led by George of Antioch attacks Constantinople.
 
 
1,155 CE - 1,157 CE: The Byzantines unsuccessfully invade southern Italy.
 
 
1,158 CE: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos signs a treaty with William I of Sicily.
 
 
1,171 CE: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos arrests 10,000 Venetian traders across the empire to limit their stranglehold on trade.
 
 
1,176 CE: A Byzantine army is ambushed by the Seljuks at the battle of Myriokephalon in Phyrgia.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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