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14500 BCE - 300 BCE: Jomon Period in Japan.
660 BCE - 585 BCE: Traditional reign dates of Emperor Jimmu, Japan's first emperor.
300 BCE - 250 CE: The Yayoi Period in ancient Japan.
97 BCE - 30 BCE: Possible reign dates of Japan's Emperor Sujin.
4 BCE: Traditional founding date of the Ise Grand Shrine in honour of the Shinto goddess Amaterasu.
82 CE: Contact between Han China and Yayoi Japan.
183 CE - 248 CE: Life of Queen Himiko of Japan.
189 CE - 248 CE: The reign of Queen Himiko.
238 CE: Queen Himiko of Japan sends a tribute delegation to China.
250 CE - 538 CE: The Kofun Period in ancient Japan.
250 CE - 710 CE: The Yamato Period in ancient Japan, consisting of the Kofun Period and Asuka Period.
300 CE - 700 CE: Haniwa terracotta figurines are placed outside Japanese mound tombs or kofun.
366 CE: Japan establishes diplomatic relations with Korea.
413 CE - 478 CE: Japanese kings send ambassadors and tribute to China.
531 CE - 571 CE: Reign of Emperor Kimmei in Japan.
535 CE - 539 CE: Reign of Emperor Senka in Japan.
538 CE - 710 CE: The Asuka Period in ancient Japan.
538 CE: Alternative date to 552 CE for the introduction of Buddhism to Japan from Korea.
552 CE: Traditional date for the introduction of Buddhism to Japan from Korea.
572 CE - 585 CE: Reign of Emperor Bidatsu in Japan.
585 CE - 587 CE: Reign of Emperor Yomei in Japan.
587 CE: The Soga clan establish control of government in Japan.
587 CE - 592 CE: Reign of Emperor Sushun in Japan.
592 CE - 628 CE: Reign of Empress Suiko, Japan's first empress.
593 CE: The Shitennoji Buddhist temple is built in Japan.
593 CE: The Buddhist Gango-ji temple, the oldest in Japan, is founded at Asuka.
594 CE - 622 CE: Reign of Prince Shotoku as regent for Japanese Empress Suiko.
596 CE: The Hokoji Buddhist temple is built in Japan.
604 CE: Prince Shotoku draws up his Seventeen Article Constitution in Japan.
607 CE: Prince Shotoku of Japan sends the first of many official embassies to Sui China.
607 CE: The Horyuji Buddhist temple is built in Nara, Japan during the reign of Regent Prince Shotoku.
629 CE - 641 CE: Reign of Emperor Jomei in Japan.
642 CE - 645 CE: Reign of Empress Kogyoku in Japan.
645 CE: The Japanese capital is moved from Asuka to Naniwa.
645 CE: Fujiwara no Kamatari leads a coup d'etat in Japan, removing the Soga clan from power.
645 CE - 654 CE: Reign of Emperor Kotoku in Japan.
645 CE: The Fujiwara clan in Japan is founded by Fujiwara no Kamatari.
655 CE - 661 CE: Reign of Empress Saimei in Japan.
661 CE - 671 CE: Reign of Emperor Tenji in Japan.
671 CE - 672 CE: Reign of Emperor Kobun in Japan.
671 CE - 672 CE: The Jinshin Incident in Japan which establishes Temmu as emperor.
672 CE - 686 CE: Reign of Emperor Temmu in Japan.
680 CE: Yakushiji temple is founded in Fujiwara-kyo.
686 CE - 697 CE: Reign of Empress Jito in Japan.
694 CE - 710 CE: Fujiwarakyo is made the Japanese capital.
697 CE - 707 CE: Reign of Emperor Mommu in Japan.
707 CE - 715 CE: Reign of Empress Gemmei in Japan.
708 CE: Japan's first coinage, the Wado kaiho, is introduced.
710 CE - 794 CE: The Nara Period in ancient Japan.
710 CE: The Japanese capital is moved from Fujiwara-kyo to Nara (aka Heijokyo).
710 CE: The Buddhist Kofukuji temple is established at Nara, main temple of the Japanese Fujiwara clan.
710 CE - 784 CE: Nara is the capital of ancient Japan.
711 CE: The Fushimi Inari shrine, dedicated to the Shinto rice god Inari, is founded near Kyoto.
712 CE: The Kojiki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.
713 CE: The Japanese Fudoki are composed and record local kami and associated legends.
715 CE - 724 CE: Reign of Empress Gensho in Japan.
720 CE: The Nihon Shoki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.
724 CE - 749 CE: Reign of Emperor Shomu in Japan.
725 CE: The Usa shrine is founded in northern Kyushu and dedicated to the Shinto god Hachiman.
735 CE - 737 CE: Japan suffers two smallpox epidemics which kills 25-35% of the population.
740 CE: A rebellion led by the Fujiwara exile Hirotsugu is quashed by Emperor Shomu.
749 CE - 758 CE: First reign of Empress Koken in Japan.
751 CE: The Kaifuso anthology of Japanese poems is compiled.
752 CE: The Buddhist Todaiji temple is founded at Nara, Japan.
758 CE - 764 CE: Reign of emperor Junnin in Japan.
759 CE: The Manyoshu or 'Collection of 10,000 Leaves' is written, an important Shinto source and classic of Japanese poetry.
764 CE - 770 CE: Second reign of Empress Koken, now known as Shotoku, in Japan.
767 CE - 822 CE: Life of Saicho, founder of Tendai Buddhism in Japan.
768 CE: Official founding date of the Kasuga Taisha Shinto shrine at Nara, Japan.
770 CE - 781 CE: Reign of Emperor Konin in Japan.
774 CE - 835 CE: Life of the monk Kukai (aka Kobo Daishi), founder of Shingon Buddhism in Japan.
781 CE - 806 CE: Reign of Emperor Kammu in Japan.
784 CE: Emperor Kammu moves the Japanese capital from Nara to Nagaokakyo.
785 CE: Saicho establishes the first Buddhist shrine at what would become the Enryakuji temple complex on Mt. Hiei, Japan.
793 CE - 864 CE: Life of Ennin, the Buddhist scholar-monk and abbot of Enryakuji, who brought many esoteric teachings from China to Japan.
794 CE - 1185 CE: The Heian Period in ancient Japan.
794 CE: Japanese Emperor Kammu sends an expedition led by Otomo no Otomaro against the Emishi.
794 CE: Emperor Kammu builds the Shinto Herano shrine at Heiankyo (Kyoto).
796 CE: The Buddhist To-ji temple near Heiankyo (Kyoto), Japan is founded.
801 CE: Japanese Emperor Kammu sends an expedition led by Sakanoue no Tamuramaro against the Emishi.
806 CE: The Shinto shrine of Fujisan Hongu Sengen Taisha is built on Mount Fuji.
807 CE: Imibe-no-Hironari writes the Kogoshui, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.
819 CE: Kukai (Kobo Daishi) establishes a monastery and headquarters for Shingon Buddhism on Mount Koya in Japan.
826 CE: A five-storey pagoda is added to the To-ji temple complex in Heiankyo (Kyoto).
838 CE: Last Japanese embassy to China during the Heian Period.
845 CE - 903 CE: Life of the deified scholar and court official Sugawara no Michizane, aka Tenjin.
866 CE: Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes the first Japanese regent not of royal blood.
874 CE: The Buddhist Daigoji temple is founded by Shobo at Heiankyo (Kyoto).
897 CE - 930 CE: Reign of Japan's Emperor Daigo.
947 CE: The Tenmangu Kitano shrine is founded in honour of Sugawara no Michizane, aka Tenjin.
995 CE: Fujiwara no Michinaga becomes the Fujiwara clan leader in Japan.
1002 CE: Sei Shonagon completes The Pillow Book, a Japanese classic describing court life during the Heian Period.
1004 CE: Japanese poet Izumi Shikibu writes her 'Izumi Shikibu Diary'.
1020 CE: The Tale of Genji is completed by Murasaki Shikibu in Japan.
1042 CE - 1103 CE: Life of the legendary Japanese warrior Minamoto no Yoshiie.
1046 CE: Yorinobu claims Hachiman patron god and founder of the Minamoto clan in Japan.
1052 CE: The Buddhist temple site Byodo-in is founded in Japan by Fujiwara no Yorimichi.
1073 CE - 1087 CE: Reign of Emperor Shirakawa in Japan.
1073 CE - 1087 CE: Reign of Japan's Emperor Shirakawa.
1147 CE - 1199 CE: Life of Minamoto no Yoritomo, clan leader of the Minamoto and first shogun of Japan.
1156 CE: Hogen Disturbance in Japan.
1160 CE: Heiji Disturbance in Japan.
1180 CE - 1185 CE: The Genpei War in Japan between the Taira and Minamoto clans.
1180 CE: Taira forces defeat an army led by Minamoto no Yorimasa.
1181 CE: Taira forces defeat an army led by Minamoto no Yukie.
1183 CE: Kiso Yoshinaka defeats a large Taira army at Kurikara in Etchu and occupies the Japanese capital Heiankyo (Kyoto).