Ancient History Encyclopedia has a new name!

We are now World History Encyclopedia to better reflect the breadth of our non-profit organization's mission. Learn More

Search Results

Search

Monotheism in the Ancient World
Article by Rebecca Denova

Monotheism in the Ancient World

Monotheism is simply defined as the belief in one god and is usually positioned as the polar opposite of polytheism, the belief in many gods. However, the word monotheism is a relatively modern one that was coined in the mid-17th century...
Twelve Ancient Persian Mythological Creatures
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Ancient Persian Mythological Creatures

The mythology of any civilization reflects its core values, greatest fears, and highest hopes and so it is with the mythology of ancient Persia. The great heroes like Karsasp, Thraetaona, and Rustum express particularly Persian values but...
Twelve Great Women of Ancient Persia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Great Women of Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia had more rights and greater freedom than any other ancient civilization including, according to some scholars, even ancient Egypt which is famous for its respect for the feminine principle in religion as well as daily...
Ten Great Persian Poets
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Great Persian Poets

Persian literature derives from a long oral tradition of poetic storytelling. The first recorded example of this tradition is the Behistun Inscription of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE), carved on a cliff-face c. 522 BCE during...
Alexander the Great & the Burning of Persepolis
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Alexander the Great & the Burning of Persepolis

In the year 330 BCE Alexander the Great (l. 356-323 BCE) conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire following his victory over the Persian Emperor Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BCE. After Darius III's...
Byzantine-Armenian Relations
Article by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine-Armenian Relations

The relationship between the Byzantine Empire and ancient Armenia was a constant and varied one with an equal mix of wars, occupations, treaties of friendship, mutual military aid, and cultural exchange. Regarded as a vital defence to the...
Dogs in Ancient Persia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Dogs in Ancient Persia

Dogs have been an integral aspect of the human condition in virtually every world culture for thousands of years. Some of the greatest civilizations of the past have kept dogs as companions, for various chores, and featured dogs...
Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary

The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) was the first great Persian political entity in Western and Central Asia which stretched, at its peak, from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia through Egypt. It was founded by Cyrus II (the...
Parthian-Scythian Relations
Article by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian-Scythian Relations

While little is written about Parthian-Scythian relations, not only did the Parthians share origins with the Scythians and cooperated militarily but social, cultural, and commercial interactions were likely as well. Essentially...
Xenophanes the Visionary Poet Philosopher
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Xenophanes the Visionary Poet Philosopher

Xenophanes of Colophon (l.c. 570-c.478 BCE) is known as one of the Pre-Socratic philosophers of ancient Greece, so-called because they pre-date Socrates (l. c. 470/469-399 BCE), recognized as the Father of Western Philosophy. The Pre-Socratics...