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Saint Gregory the Illuminator
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Saint Gregory the Illuminator

Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Enlightener (previously known as Grigor Lusavorich, c. 239 - c. 330 CE) was the first bishop of the Armenian church, and he is widely credited with converting king Tiridates the Great to Christianity, formally...
Khor Virap
Definition by James Blake Wiener

Khor Virap

Khor Virap is a monastery located in Armenia that was first established in 642 CE. Its name is derived from "virap nerk'in," which means "deep dungeon" in Armenian. Khor Virap is one of the most sacred and visited sites...
Parthia (Empire)
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthia (Empire)

The Parthians ruled from 247 BCE to 224 CE creating a vast empire that stretched from the Mediterranean in the west to India and China in the east. East of the Caspian Sea there emerged from the steppe of Central Asia a nomadic Scythian tribe...
Ancient Persian Art and Architecture
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Art and Architecture

Persian art and architecture in the present day is associated with the nation of Iran and usually designated as beginning with the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) but has an even longer history with its origins dating back to before the...
Hafez Shiraz
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Hafez Shiraz

Hafez Shiraz (also given as Hafiz, l. 1315-1390 CE) is considered the greatest of the Persian poets and among the most famous and admired writers in world literature. His full name is Khwaja Shams-ud-Din Muhammed Hafez-e Shiraz, but he was...
Parthian Culture
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian Culture

Stretching between China and India in the east to the Mediterranean in the west, Parthia ruled over one of the widest expanses of empire in its time and Parthian culture flourished for 500 years (247 BCE - 224 CE). While known for their...
Elam
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Elam

Elam was a region in the Near East corresponding to the modern-day provinces of Ilam and Khuzestan in southern Iran (though it also included part of modern-day southern Iraq) whose civilization spanned thousands of years from c. 3200 - c...
Darius I
Definition by Radu Cristian

Darius I

Darius I (l. c. 550-486 BCE, r. 522-486 BCE), also known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of the Achaemenid Empire. His reign lasted 36 years, from 522 to 486 BCE; during this time the Persian Empire reached its peak...
Ctesiphon
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ctesiphon

Ctesiphon was an ancient city and trade center on the east bank of the Tigris River founded during the reign of Mithridates I (the Great, 171-132 BCE). It is best known in the modern day for the single-span arch, Taq Kasra, which is the most...
Ancient Armenia
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Armenia

Ancient Armenia, located in the south Caucasus area of Eurasia, was settled in the Neolithic era but its first recorded state proper was the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BCE. Incorporated into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great...