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Religion in the Ancient World
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Religion in the Ancient World

Religion (from the Latin Religio, meaning 'restraint,' or Relegere, according to Cicero, meaning 'to repeat, to read again,' or, most likely, Religionem, 'to show respect for what is sacred') is an organized system of beliefs and practices...
Mamikonian Dynasty
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Mamikonian Dynasty

The Mamikonians were a powerful clan group who were influential in Armenian political and military affairs from the 1st century BCE onwards. They rose to particular prominence from c. 428 CE to 652 CE in the half of Armenia ruled by the Sasanian...
Sassanian Kings List & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sassanian Kings List & Commentary

The Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the greatest expression of Persian culture in the ancient world. It was consciously modeled on the earlier Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which established Persian supremacy in the region and developed...
Ten Ancient Elam Facts You Need to Know
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient Elam Facts You Need to Know

Elam, located in the region of the modern-day provinces of Ilam and Khuzestan in Iran, was one of the most impressive civilizations of the ancient world. It was never a cohesive ethnic kingdom or polity but rather a federation of different...
Ancient Persia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persia

Persia (roughly modern-day Iran) is among the oldest inhabited regions in the world. Archaeological sites in the country have established human habitation dating back 100,000 years to the Paleolithic Age with semi-permanent settlements (most...
Cyrus the Great
Definition by Daan Nijssen

Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II (d. 530 BCE), also known as Cyrus the Great, was the fourth king of Anshan and the first king of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus led several military campaigns against the most powerful kingdoms of the time, including Media, Lydia...
Tang Dynasty
Definition by Emily Mark

Tang Dynasty

The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) is regularly cited as the greatest imperial dynasty in ancient Chinese history. It was a golden age of reform and cultural advancement, which lay the groundwork for policies which are still observed in China...
Yazidism
Definition by Seth Eislund

Yazidism

Yazidism is a syncretic, monotheistic religion practiced by the Yazidis, an ethnoreligious group which resides primarily in northern Iraq, northern Syria, and southeastern Turkey. Yazidism is considered by its adherents to be the oldest religion...
Shahnameh
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Shahnameh

The Shahnameh (“Book of Kings”, composed 977-1010 CE) is a medieval epic written by the poet Abolqasem Ferdowsi (l. c. 940-1020 CE) in order to preserve the myths, legends, history, language, and culture of ancient Persia. It...
Kosrau I
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Kosrau I

Kosrau I (r. 531-579 CE) was the greatest king of the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) in virtually every aspect of his reign. He reformed the military, the Persian government, expanded his territories, engaged in large-scale building projects...