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Ahriman Statue Side View [1]
Image by Touraj Daryaee

Ahriman Statue Side View [1]

Statue of Ahriman from a Mithraic Temple Unknown provenance, 1st century BCE - 3rd century CE (not yet on display)
Ahriman Statue Side View [2]
Image by Touraj Daryaee

Ahriman Statue Side View [2]

Statue of Ahriman from a Mithraic Temple Unknown provenance, 1st century BCE - 3rd century CE (not yet on display)
Shapur II
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Shapur II

Shapur II (r. 309-379 CE, also given as Sapur II) was the tenth monarch of the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) and among the most successful. Under his reign – which lasted his entire life – the Avesta (Zoroastrian scripture...
The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan: Median or Achaemenid?
Article by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan: Median or Achaemenid?

O Creator of the material world, at what distance from the holy man (should the place for the dead body be)?" Ahura Mazda replied: "Three paces from the holy man". (Vend. 8. 6-7) In September 2009 CE, one of my relatives...
Sasanian Empire
Definition by Alonso Constenla Cervantes

Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE, also given as Sassanian, Sasanid or Sassanid) was the last pre-Islamic Persian empire, established in 224 CE by Ardeshir I, son of Papak, descendant of Sasan. The Empire lasted until 651 CE when it was...
Ancient Persian Governors
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Governors

The Achaemenid Persian Empire functioned as well as it did because of the efficient bureaucracy established by its founder Cyrus the Great (r. c. 550-530 BCE) which was administered through the satrapy system. A Persian governor of a...
Ancient Persian Culture
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Culture

Ancient Persian culture flourished between the reign of Cyrus II (The Great, r. c. 550-530 BCE), founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and the fall of the Sassanian Empire in 651 CE. Even so, the foundations of Persian culture were already...
Ancient Persian Government
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Government

The government of ancient Persia was based on a highly efficient bureaucracy which combined the concepts of the centralization of power with the decentralization of administration. The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) founded by Cyrus the...
Artaxerxes II
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Artaxerxes II

Artaxerxes II (r. 404-358 BCE, also known as Artaxerxes II Mnemon) was the 10th monarch of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE). He was the son of Darius II (r. 424-404 BCE) and Parysatis (who was Darius II's half-sister) and older brother...
Ten Ancient Persia Facts You Need to Know
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient Persia Facts You Need to Know

Ancient Persian culture exerted a powerful influence throughout the Near East, and beyond, for over a thousand years between c. 550 BCE - 651 CE and many aspects of their culture continued to influence others afterwards and up through the...