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David IV the Builder
Definition by Michael Goodyear

David IV the Builder

David IV the Builder or the Restorer (also known as Davit IV Aghmashenebeli) was the king of Georgia from 1089 to 1125 CE. His long reign was marked by a substantial revival of medieval Georgia, he regained much of...
Aphrodite
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Aphrodite

Ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, desire, and all aspects of sexuality, Aphrodite could entice both gods and men into illicit affairs with her good looks and whispered sweet nothings. Born near Cyprus from the severed...
Illuminated Manuscripts
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Illuminated Manuscripts

Illuminated manuscripts were hand-made books, usually on Christian scripture or practice, produced in Western Europe between c. 500-c. 1600 CE. They are so called because of the use of gold and silver which illuminates the text and accompanying...
Conflict & Celts: The Creation of Ancient Galatia
Article by Jeffrey King

Conflict & Celts: The Creation of Ancient Galatia

Galatia was the most long-lasting and powerful Celtic settlement outside of Europe. It was the only kingdom of note to be forged during the Celtic invasions of the Mediterranean in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From its foundation, Galatia...
The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE)
Article by Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE)

The sixth and last phase of the Delian League begins with the Decelean War, also referred to as the Ionian War, and ends with the surrender of Athens (413/2 – 404/3 BCE). The final nine years of the Delian League became the most chaotic...
Hundred Years' War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict between England and France which ran on for 116 years. The war began principally because King Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) and Philip VI of France (r...
Freyr
Definition by Emma Groeneveld

Freyr

Freyr (Old Norse for 'Lord', sometimes anglicised as Frey) is the main fertility god in Norse mythology, his connection with harvests, sun and rain, virility, weddings, and his rule over wealth securing him an important position within the...
Ancient Scotland
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Scotland

Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes the islands known as the Hebrides and the Orkneys. The name derives from the Roman word "Scotti" which designated an Irish tribe who invaded...
Malcolm III of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Malcolm III of Scotland

Malcolm III of Scotland (aka Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) reigned as king from 1058 to 1093 CE. He took the throne after his young predecessor Lulach (r. 1057-1058 CE), the stepson of Macbeth, king of Scotland (r. 1040-1057 CE), was...
Viking Age Oval Brooches from Hedeby
Image by Einsamer Schütze

Viking Age Oval Brooches from Hedeby

Two Viking Age oval brooches - also known as tortoise brooches - which were used in a practical way by women to pin up the straps of their overdresses but were often decorated. They came in pairs - one for each dress strap - and are often...