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Albigensian Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade (aka Cathars' Crusade, 1209-1229 CE), was the first crusade to specifically target heretic Christians - the Cathars of southern France. Not successful in repressing the heresy, the on-off campaigns over two decades...
Courtly Love
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Courtly Love

Courtly Love (Amour Courtois) refers to an innovative literary genre of poetry of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) which elevated the position of women in society and established the motifs of the romance genre recognizable in the present...
Cernunnos
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Cernunnos

Cernunnos was an ancient Celtic god who represented nature, flora and fauna, and fertility. He is frequently depicted in Celtic art wearing stag antlers or horns and usually a torc around his neck. Few details are known about him but celebrated...
Chartres Cathedral
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Chartres Cathedral

The Notre Dame Cathedral (Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption) of Chartres in northern France was built in its current Romanesque and Gothic form between 1190 and 1220 CE. A grander version of earlier cathedrals on the same site, it would...
The Legendary Settlement of Iceland
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Legendary Settlement of Iceland

It is said that the early Norse settlers of Iceland in the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) believed it was the home of the gods because of the tale of the creation of the world in Norse religion. In the time before time, the story goes, there...
Exploring  Norways' Forgotten Stone Circles & Petroglyphs
Article by Wanda Marcussen

Exploring Norways' Forgotten Stone Circles & Petroglyphs

Right outside the cities of Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg in South-East Norway, there are two archaeological, intriguing and beautiful sites, the Hunnfelt, a monument consisting of several stone circles and burial sites, and the Begbyfelt...
Battle of Stamford Bridge
Article by Mark Cartwright

Battle of Stamford Bridge

The Battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, England on 25 September 1066 CE saw an army led by English king Harold II (r. Jan-Oct 1066 CE) defeat an invading force led by Harald Hardrada, king of Norway (r. 1046-1066 CE). Hardrada, aided...
The Mongol Invasions of Japan, 1274 & 1281 CE
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Mongol Invasions of Japan, 1274 & 1281 CE

The Mongol invasions of Japan took place in 1274 and 1281 CE when Kublai Khan (r. 1260-1294 CE) sent two huge fleets from Korea and China. In both cases, the Japanese, and especially the samurai warriors, vigorously defended their shores...
The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers

The sea dogs, as they were disparagingly called by the Spanish authorities, were privateers who, with the consent and sometimes financial support of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), attacked and plundered Spanish colonial settlements...
Reconstructed Viking Houses at Hedeby
Image by Frank Vincentz

Reconstructed Viking Houses at Hedeby

Reconstructed Viking houses from the Viking Age trading centre of Hedeby (also known as Haithabu in German) in what used to be part of the Danish Vikings' territory. It now lies in Germany, near the city of Schleswig on the Jutland peninsula...