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Carthaginian Trade
Article by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Trade

The Carthaginians, like their Phoenician forefathers, were highly successful traders who sailed the Mediterranean with their goods, and such was their success that Carthage became the richest city in the ancient world. Metals, foodstuffs...
Swahili Coast
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Swahili Coast

The Swahili Coast, located along the shores of East Africa, was a region where, from the 8th century CE, Africans and Arabs mixed to create a unique identity, often referred to as Swahili Culture. Swahili, which is also the name of this people's...
Hanseatic League
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (also known as Hansa, Hanse, 1356-1862 CE) was a federation of north German towns and cities formed in the 12th century CE to facilitate trade and protect mutual interests. The league was centered in the German town of...
Timbuktu
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Timbuktu

Timbuktu (also Timbuctoo) is a city in Mali, West Africa which was an important trade centre of the Mali Empire which flourished between the 13th and 15th centuries CE. The city, founded c. 1100 CE, gained wealth from its access to and control...
Uruk
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Uruk

Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE.  Located in the southern region of Sumer...
Phoenician Colonization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Phoenician Colonization

The prosperity of Phoenician cities such as Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos was based on trade, and it was the search for new commodities and new markets which resulted in the Phoenicians branching out from the narrow coastal strip of the Levant...
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Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Godin Tepe

Godin Tepe is, today, an archaeological site in the Kangavar valley of Luristan, in western central Iran. The name means "hill of Godin" though what the settlement was called originally is unknown. The site was first discovered...
Aegean
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aegean

The Aegean Sea lies between the coast of Greece and Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It contains over 2,000 islands which were settled by the ancient Greeks; the largest among them being Crete (Kriti) and the best known and most often photographed...
Uluburun Shipwreck
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Uluburun Shipwreck

The Uluburun shipwreck is a Bronze Age vessel discovered lying off the coast of Kas, Turkey. The ship, probably originally from Phoenicia/Canaan, dates to between 1330 and 1300 BCE and was carrying a full cargo of trade goods, perhaps from...
Medieval Guilds
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Medieval Guilds

Guilds of merchants and craft workers were formed in medieval Europe so that their members could benefit from mutual aid, production standards could be maintained, competition was reduced and, by acting collectively, a certain political influence...