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Follow the Money.  The Coinage of Later Imperial Rome:  A Reflection of Economic Stress and Decline
Article by Cy A. Stein & Daniela Castanotto

Follow the Money. The Coinage of Later Imperial Rome: A Reflection of Economic Stress and Decline

Unlike the practice of professional numismatists, I prefer to see the “big picture”. So, my entire Roman coin collection, all 250 pieces, from Julius Caesar to Valentinian III is laid out on a single pane of glass in a cabinet...
Trade in Ancient Greece
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in Ancient Greece

Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean...
Trade in the Roman World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Roman World

Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil...
Trade in the Phoenician World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Phoenician World

The Phoenicians, based on a narrow coastal strip of the Levant, put their excellent seafaring skills to good use and created a network of colonies and trade centres across the ancient Mediterranean. Their major trade routes were by sea to...
History & Mining Culture of the Ore Mountains
Article by Wanda Marcussen

History & Mining Culture of the Ore Mountains

The Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) on the border between Germany and the Czech Republic is a region rich in history and culture connected to the mining industry. For centuries the cities on both sides of the mountain range had sustained...
Trade in the Byzantine Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Byzantine Empire

Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and expansion of the Byzantine Empire. Trade was carried out by ship over vast distances, although for safety, most sailing vessels were restricted to the better weather conditions...
Carthaginian Trade
Article by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Trade

The Carthaginians, like their Phoenician forefathers, were highly successful traders who sailed the Mediterranean with their goods, and such was their success that Carthage became the richest city in the ancient world. Metals, foodstuffs...
Etruscan Trade
Article by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Trade

The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, and their prosperity was largely based on their exploitation of local mineral resources, both through manufactured goods and trade. The Etruscans exchanged...
Banking in the Roman World
Article by Victor Labate

Banking in the Roman World

Just as in other ancient civilizations, the first banks in Rome began in the temples consecrated to the ancient Gods. Many temples held in their basements the Romans' money and treasure, and were involved in banking activities such as lending...
Trade in the Middle Ages
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Middle Ages

Peoples, cities and states have traded since antiquity but in the medieval period, things escalated so that goods travelled ever greater distances by land, river and sea. Great cities arose thanks to commerce and international trade such...