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Silver in Antiquity
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Silver in Antiquity

Silver had great value and aesthetic appeal in many ancient cultures where it was used to make jewellery, tableware, figurines, ritual objects and rough-cut pieces known as hacksilver which could be used in trade or to store wealth. The metal...
Gold in Antiquity
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Gold in Antiquity

Gold, chemical symbol Au (from the Latin aurum meaning ‘shining dawn’), is a precious metal which has been used since antiquity in the production of jewellery, coinage, sculpture, vessels and as a decoration for buildings, monuments...
Ancient Greek Coinage
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Greek Coinage

The coinage of ancient Greece has given us some of the most recognisable images from antiquity as they were stamped with designs to proudly declare the identity of the city which minted them and guarantee their value. One of the great archaeological...
Carthaginian Coinage
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Coinage

The coinage of Carthage was first minted from the 5th century BCE. Initially adopting the drachma, the Carthaginians later minted silver shekel coins. Designs were instantly recognisable, as intended, and included famous figures such as Hannibal...
Copper in Antiquity
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Copper in Antiquity

Copper was probably the first metal used by ancient cultures, and the oldest artefacts made with it date to the Neolithic period. The shiny red-brown metal was used for jewellery, tools, sculpture, bells, vessels, lamps, amulets, and death...
Roman Economy & Trade
Lesson Pack by Marion Wadowski

Roman Economy & Trade

We have prepared three lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions adaptable for debates, presentations...
Pax Romana - Web Quest
Worksheet/Activity by Marion Wadowski

Pax Romana - Web Quest

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching, as well as homeschooling. Students have to complete a web quest, based on multiple articles (also available...
Trade in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Trade in Ancient Egypt

Trade has always been a vital aspect of any civilization whether at the local or international level. However many goods one has, whether as an individual, a community, or a country, there will always be something one lacks and will need...
Trade in Medieval Europe
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in Medieval Europe

Trade and commerce in the medieval world developed to such an extent that even relatively small communities had access to weekly markets and, perhaps a day’s travel away, larger but less frequent fairs, where the full range of consumer...
The Importance of the Lydian Stater as the World's First Coin
Article by Everett Millman

The Importance of the Lydian Stater as the World's First Coin

The Lydian Stater was the official coin of the Lydian Empire, introduced before the kingdom fell to the Persian Empire. The earliest staters are believed to date to around the second half of the 7th century BCE, during the reign of King Alyattes...