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The Phoenicians - Master Mariners
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Phoenicians - Master Mariners

Driven by their desire for trade and the acquisition of such commodities as silver from Spain, gold from Africa, and tin from the Scilly Isles, the Phoenicians sailed far and wide, even beyond the Mediterranean’s traditional safe limits...
Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare

In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an...
The Portland Vase
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Portland Vase

The Portland Vase is a Roman two-handled glass amphora dating to between the second half of the 1st century BCE and the early 1st century CE. The vase has a cameo-like effect decoration which perhaps depicts the marriage of Peleus and Thetis...
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Article by Messer, Rick Jay

The Influence of Hannibal of Carthage on The Art of War

This paper examines the influence of Hannibal of Carthage on the art of war over time. Hannibal’s war with Rome provides a complex example of strategic and tactical successes and failures that have been modeled and studied throughout...
The Pythia – Priestess of Ancient Delphi
Article by Brian Haughton

The Pythia – Priestess of Ancient Delphi

The imposing archaeological site of Delphi sits over 1800 feet up on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus, about 6 miles inland from the Corinthian Gulf, central Greece. The ancient temple complex of Delphi, which dates back at least...
Roman Artillery
Article by Mark Cartwright

Roman Artillery

Roman artillery weapons were instrumental in the successes of the Roman army over centuries and were especially used in siege warfare, both for offence and defence. Principally used in fixed positions or onboard ships, these machines, known...
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Article by Brent D. Shaw, Princeton University

Cult and Belief in Punic and Roman Africa

This is a second attempt at a synthesis of the main problems for the forthcoming Cambridge History of Ancient Religions. The problems are complex and still threaten to overwhelm. This version remains a cri de coeur: any helpful comments...
The Rise of Cities in the Ancient Mediterranean
Article by Oxford University Press

The Rise of Cities in the Ancient Mediterranean

The history of the ancient world has always been told as a history of cities, from Homer’s epic poems about events just before and just after the sack of Troy, through the prose histories of wars between Athens and Sparta, Rome and...
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Article by Aristotle

Aristotle on the Constitution of Carthage, c. 340 BC

The Carthaginians are also considered to have an excellent form of government, which differs from that of any other state in several respects, though it is in some very like the Spartan. Indeed, all three states---the Spartan, the Cretan...
Ancient Roman Warfare
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Roman Warfare

With a huge reserve of resources in men and equipment and a culture geared for warfare, the Romans were relentless in expanding their borders and putting their neighbours to the sword. The Roman army, with its well-trained, well-equipped...