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Urartu Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Urartu Civilization

Urartu, also known as the Kingdom of Urartu or the Kingdom of Van, was a civilization which developed in the Bronze and Iron Age of ancient Armenia, eastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran from the 9th century BCE. Controlling territories through...
Tiglath Pileser III
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Tiglath Pileser III

Tiglath Pileser III (745-727 BCE) was among the most powerful kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and, according to many scholars, the founder of the empire (as opposed to the claims for Adad Nirari II (912-891 BCE) or Ashurnasirpal II (884-859...
Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) is the era following the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-c.1069 BCE) and preceding the Late Period (c.525-332 BCE). Egyptian history was divided into eras of 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate...
Urartu Religion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Urartu Religion

The religion of the Urartu civilization, which flourished principally in ancient Armenia from the 9th to 6th century BCE, was a unique mix of indigenous, Hurrian and Mesopotamian gods and symbolism. The pantheon was headed by the trinity...
Gordium
Definition by Thamis

Gordium

Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. It is situated on the place where the ancient Royal road between Lydia and Assyria/Babylonia crosses the river Sangarius, which flows from central Anatolia to the Black...
Sargon II's Throne
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Sargon II's Throne

Two Assyrian servants carry what appears to the throne of King Sargon II. Traces of the original paint can be seen. Note the details of the throne. This alabaster bas-relief is part of a long tributary scene, where the Assyrian king, Sargon...
Sargon II Attacks a City
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Sargon II Attacks a City

This relief was part of Sargon II's throne, from Throne Hall VII of the Royal Palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad, in modern-day Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. Circa 710 BCE. The Assyrian king, Sargon II, stands in his royal chariot, below a...
Sargon II Wall Relief
Image by Jastrow

Sargon II Wall Relief

Sargon II and dignitary on a low-relief from the left wall of the palace of Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq), c. 716–713 BCE. Sargon II reigned 722-705 BCE and was one of the most important kings of the Neo-Assyrian...
The Eternal Life of Gilgamesh
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Eternal Life of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is among the most popular works of literature in the present day and has influenced countless numbers of readers but, for the greater part of its history, it was lost. The Assyrian Empire fell to a coalition of...
The Myth of Etana
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Myth of Etana

The Myth of Etana is the story of the Sumerian antediluvian King of Kish who ascends to heaven on an eagle to request the Plant of Birth from the gods so that he might have a son. Etana is named as the first king of Kish in the Sumerian King...