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Uruk
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Uruk

Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE.  Located in the southern region of Sumer...
Urartu Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Urartu Civilization

Urartu, also known as the Kingdom of Urartu or the Kingdom of Van, was a civilization which developed in the Bronze and Iron Age of ancient Armenia, eastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran from the 9th century BCE. Controlling territories through...
Tiglath Pileser III
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Tiglath Pileser III

Tiglath Pileser III (745-727 BCE) was among the most powerful kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and, according to many scholars, the founder of the empire (as opposed to the claims for Adad Nirari II (912-891 BCE) or Ashurnasirpal II (884-859...
Anu
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Anu

Anu (also known as An) is an early Mesopotamian sky god who was later viewed as the Father of the Gods and ruler of the heavens, a position which then passed to his son Enlil. He is the son of the couple Anshar and Kishar (heaven and earth...
Ashurbanipal
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ashurbanipal

Ashurbanipal (668-627 BCE, also known as Assurbanipal) was the last of the great kings of Assyria. His name means "the god Ashur is creator of an heir" and he was the son of King Esarhaddon of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. In the Hebrew...
Winning Against the Odds: Sargon II & the Urartu Campaign
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Winning Against the Odds: Sargon II & the Urartu Campaign

It is often when one is faced with the most difficult circumstances that one is given the greatest opportunity for clarity. History provides ample evidence of this experience in showing how, when faced with seemingly impossible situations...
The Legend of Sargon of Akkad
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Legend of Sargon of Akkad

Sargon of Akkad (also known as Sargon of Agade and Sargon the Great, reigned 2334 to 2279 BCE), the founder of the Akkadian Empire, was a man keenly aware of his times and the people he would rule over. While he was clearly a brilliant military...
Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia

Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same way one would describe life in ancient Rome or Greece. Mesopotamia was never a single, unified civilization, not even under the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great.  Generally...
Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know

Mesopotamia is the ancient Greek name (meaning “the land between two rivers”, the Tigris and Euphrates) for the region corresponding to modern-day Iraq and parts of Iran, Syria, and Turkey. It is considered the “cradle of...
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Article by Joshua J. Mark

Enheduanna - Poet, Priestess, Empire Builder

Enheduanna (2285-2250 BCE) is the world's first author and was the daughter (either literally or figuratively) of the great empire-builder Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE). Her name translates from the Akkadian as `high priestess of An', the...