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Roman Daily Life
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Daily Life

From the early days of the Roman Republic through the volatile reigns of such ignoble emperors as Caligula, Nero, and Commodus, the Roman Empire continued to expand, stretching its borders to encompass the entire Mediterranean Sea as well...
Slavery in the Roman World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Slavery in the Roman World

Slavery was an ever-present feature of the Roman world. Slaves served in households, agriculture, mines, the military, manufacturing workshops, construction and a wide range of services within the city. As many as 1 in 3 of the population...
Roman Citizenship
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Citizenship

Citizenship is and always has been a valued possession of any individual. When one studies the majority of ancient empires one finds that the concept of citizenship, in any form, was non-existent. The people in these societies did not and...
Roman Roads
Article by Mark Cartwright

Roman Roads

The long straight roads built by the Romans wherever they conquered have, in many cases, become just as famous names in history as their greatest emperors and generals. Building upon more ancient routes and creating a huge number of new ones...
The Price of Greed: Hannibal's Betrayal by Carthage
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Price of Greed: Hannibal's Betrayal by Carthage

Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general of the Second Punic War (218-202 BCE), had the military talent, expertise, and skill to have won the conflict but was denied the resources by his government. The Carthaginian...
Roman Games, Chariot Races & Spectacle
Article by Mark Cartwright

Roman Games, Chariot Races & Spectacle

If there was one thing the Roman people loved it was spectacle and the opportunity of escapism offered by weird and wonderful public shows which assaulted the senses and ratcheted up the emotions. Roman rulers knew this well and so to increase...
Trade in the Roman World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Roman World

Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil...
The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest

The Battle of Zama (202 BCE) was the final engagement of the Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) at which Hannibal Barca of Carthage (l. 247-183 BCE) was defeated by Scipio Africanus of Rome (l. 236-183 BCE) ending the conflict in Rome’s...
Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine
Article by Mark Cartwright

Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty [image:486] Augustus 16 Jan 27 BCE - 19 Aug 14 CE [image:777] Tiberius 18 Sep 14 CE - 16 Mar 37 CE [image:2400] Caligula 18 Mar 37 CE - 24 Jan 41 CE [image:644] Claudius 25 Jan 41 CE - 13...
The Brothers Gracchi: The Tribunates of Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
Article by Steven Fife

The Brothers Gracchi: The Tribunates of Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus

Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were a pair of tribunes of the plebs from the 2nd Century BCE, who sought to introduce land reform and other populist legislation in ancient Rome. They were both members of the Populares, a group of politicians...