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Western Roman Empire
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Western Roman Empire

The Western Roman Empire is the modern-day term for the western half of the Roman Empire after it was divided in two by the emperor Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE) in c. 285/286 CE. The Romans themselves did not use this term. At its height...
Pax Romana
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Pax Romana

The Pax Romana (Roman Peace) was a period of relative peace and stability across the Roman Empire which lasted for over 200 years, beginning with the reign of Augustus (27 BCE - 14 CE). The aim of Augustus and his successors was to guarantee...
Roman Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Warfare

Over many centuries and across many territories the Romans were able to win an astonishing number of military victories and their success was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked, there was a huge pool...
Roman Senate
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Senate

The Roman Senate functioned as an advisory body to Rome's magistrates and, composed as it was of the city's most experienced public servants and society's elite, its decisions carried great weight, even if they were not always...
Roman Emperor
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Emperor

Roman emperors ruled over the Imperial Roman Empire starting with Augustus from 27 BCE and continuing in the Western Roman Empire until the late 5th century CE and in the Eastern Roman Empire up to the mid-15th century CE. The emperors would...
Roman Baths
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Baths

Baths for bathing and relaxing were a common feature of Roman cities throughout the empire. The often huge bath complexes included a wide diversity of rooms offering different temperatures and facilities such as swimming pools and places...
Ghosts in the Ancient World
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ghosts in the Ancient World

To the people of the ancient world, there was no doubt that the soul of a human being survived bodily death. Whatever an individual's personal views were on the subject, culturally they were brought up with the understanding that the...
Roman Standard
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Roman Standard

The Roman Standard (Latin: Signum or Signa Romanum) was a pennant, flag, or banner, suspended or attached to a staff or pole, which identified a Roman legion (infantry) or Equites (cavalry). The Standard of a cavalry unit was emblazoned...
Tomb
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Tomb

A tomb is an enclosed space for the repository of the remains of the dead. Traditionally tombs have been located in caves, underground, or in structures designed specifically for the purpose of containing the remains of deceased human beings and...
Roman Medicine
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Medicine

Roman medicine was greatly influenced by earlier Greek medical practice and literature but would also make its own unique contribution to the history of medicine through the work of such famous experts as Galen and Celsus. Whilst there were...