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Emperor Zeno
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Emperor Zeno

Zeno was Byzantine emperor from 474 until 491 CE. An ethnic Isaurian, Zeno was repeatedly criticized as an outsider during his reign, which was full of rebellions and attacks by the Ostrogoths. He is best known for his failed attempt to compromise...
Magnus Maximus
Definition by Wesley Fiorentino

Magnus Maximus

Magnus Maximus (c. 355 - August 28, 388 CE) was a Roman usurper and Western Roman Emperor from 383-388 CE. He was a prominent general in the Roman army, particularly in the province of Britain. In 383 CE he usurped the Western throne, rebelling...
Leo III
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Leo III

Leo III was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 717 to 741 CE. He founded the Isaurian dynasty which ruled until 802 CE. The emperor was a talented administrator, and he revamped the empire’s political apparatus and legal code. Leo’s...
Roman Standard
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Roman Standard

The Roman Standard (Latin: Signum or Signa Romanum) was a pennant, flag, or banner, suspended or attached to a staff or pole, which identified a Roman legion (infantry) or Equites (cavalry). The Standard of a cavalry unit was emblazoned...
Decebalus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Decebalus

Decebalus (c. 87-106 CE) was the king of Dacia (roughly modern-day Romania and Moldova) who fought two wars with Rome under Trajan (in 101-102 CE and 105-106 CE) in defense of his kingdom. Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) was renewing a conflict between...
Caligula
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Caligula

Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) was Roman emperor from 37 to 41 CE. Among the great emperors of the Roman Empire stand Augustus and Marcus Aurelius. At the other end of the spectrum is Emperor Caligula who the historian...
Empress Irene
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Empress Irene

Empress Irene was the wife of Leo IV and, on her husband’s death, she reigned as regent for her son Constantine VI from 780 to 790 CE. From 797 to 802 CE she ruled as emperor in her own right, the first woman to do so in Byzantine history...
Mehmed II
Definition by Zain Khokhar

Mehmed II

Mehmed II (1432-1481 CE), also known as Mehmed the Conqueror, was the seventh and among the greatest sultans of the Ottoman Empire. His conquests consolidated Ottoman rule in Anatolia and the Balkans, and he most famously triumphed in conquering...
Marcus Gavius Apicius
Definition by John Horgan

Marcus Gavius Apicius

Marcus Gavius Apicius, a wealthy and educated member of the Roman elite who lived during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (14-37 CE), is famous for his love of food and a cookbook titled De Re Coquinaria (The Art of Cooking). He was a model...
Gaul
Definition by bisdent

Gaul

Gaul (Latin Gallia, French Gaule) is the name given by the Romans to the territories where the Celtic Gauls (Latin Galli, French Gaulois) lived, including present France, Belgium, Luxemburg and parts of the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany...