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Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Rome
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Rome

Dogs were highly valued in ancient Rome, as they were in other cultures, and the Roman dog served many of the same purposes as it did in, say, Egypt and Persia, but with a significant difference in focus. Like the Egyptians, the Romans created...
Byzantine Icons
Article by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Icons

Icons, that is images of holy persons, were an important part of the Byzantine Christian Church from the 3rd century CE onwards. Venerated in churches, public places, and private homes, they were often believed to have protective properties...
Tacitus on Boudicca's Revolt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Tacitus on Boudicca's Revolt

Tacitus (full name, Publius Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, ca. 56 – ca. 117 CE) was a Roman Senator and an important historian of the Roman Empire. In the following passages Tacitus gives an account of the Iceni Queen Boudicca’s revolt...
The Differences Between Byzantine & Armenian Christianity
Article by Michael Goodyear

The Differences Between Byzantine & Armenian Christianity

Although both the Byzantines and the Armenians were Christian, the types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups and a considerable part of their relationship...
Roman Artillery
Article by Mark Cartwright

Roman Artillery

Roman artillery weapons were instrumental in the successes of the Roman army over centuries and were especially used in siege warfare, both for offence and defence. Principally used in fixed positions or onboard ships, these machines, known...
Procopius on the Plague of Justinian: Text & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Procopius on the Plague of Justinian: Text & Commentary

The Plague of Justinian (541-542 CE and onwards) is the first fully documented case of bubonic plague in history. It is named for the emperor of the Byzantine Empire at the time, Justinian I (r. 527-565 CE) and recorded by his court historian...
Mavia's Revolt & the Christian Question
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Mavia's Revolt & the Christian Question

In 378 CE the Tanukhid queen Mavia (r. c. 375 - c. 425 CE) of the Saracens led a successful revolt against the Roman Empire, pitting her forces against the armies under the emperor Valens (364-378 CE). Launching her insurrection from the...
The Great Palace of Constantinople
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Great Palace of Constantinople

The Great Palace of Constantinople was the magnificent residence of Byzantine emperors and their court officials which included a golden throne room with wondrous mechanical devices, reception halls, chapels, treasury, and gardens. In use...
Byzantine Monasticism
Article by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Monasticism

Monasticism, that is individuals devoting themselves to an ascetic life in a monastery for devotional purposes, was an ever-present feature of the Byzantine empire. Monasteries became powerful landowners and a voice to be listened to in imperial...
Battle of Tricamarum
Article by Nathan Stafford

Battle of Tricamarum

The Battle of Tricamarum (533 CE) was the second and last major battle of the Vandalic War (533 – 534 CE). The battle was fought between the forces of the Byzantine Empire under the leadership of the general Belisarius (500 &ndash...