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Roman Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Warfare

Over many centuries and across many territories the Romans were able to win an astonishing number of military victories and their success was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked, there was a huge pool...
The Goths
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Goths

The Goths were a Germanic tribe who are frequently referenced for their part in the fall of the Roman Empire and their subsequent rise to power in the region of northern Europe, initially in Italy. They are first referenced by Herodotus as...
First Triumvirate
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate of ancient Rome was an uneasy alliance between the three titans Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus which, from 60 BCE until 53 BCE, dominated the politics of the Roman Republic. Alliances have always been a part of history...
Uluburun Shipwreck
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Uluburun Shipwreck

The Uluburun shipwreck is a Bronze Age vessel discovered lying off the coast of Kas, Turkey. The ship, probably originally from Phoenicia/Canaan, dates to between 1330 and 1300 BCE and was carrying a full cargo of trade goods, perhaps from...
Ming Dynasty
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ming Dynasty

The Ming dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644 CE, replacing the Mongol Yuan dynasty which had been in place since the 13th century CE. Despite challenges from abroad and within, the dynasty would oversee an unprecedented growth in China’s...
Seleucid Empire
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (312-63 BCE) was the vast political entity established by Seleucus I Nicator (“Victor” or “Unconquered”, l. c. 358-281 BCE, r. 305-281 BCE), one of the generals of Alexander the Great, after Alexander’s...
Rhodes
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Rhodes

Rhodes, with an area of 1,400 km², is the largest island in the Greek Dodecanese group located in the south-eastern Aegean. The island was an important protagonist in wider Greek and Mediterranean affairs throughout the Bronze Age, Archaic...
The Pentecontaetia
Definition by Christopher Planeaux

The Pentecontaetia

The Pentecontaetia (Pentekontætia, πεντηκονταετία) or “the account of the fifty years” is a term first used by Thucydides to describe, in Book 1, Sections...
Timoleon
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Timoleon

Timoleon (c. 411 - c. 337 BCE) was a Corinthian statesman and general who famously defeated the tyrant of Syracuse Dionysius II and an army of Carthage against the odds. Permanently settling on the island, he re-organized the governments...
Jang Bogo
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Jang Bogo

Jang Bogo (aka Chang Pogo or Gungbok) was a powerful Korean warlord, naval commander, and merchant who came to monopolise maritime trade in northeast Asia to such a degree that he was known as the 'King of the Yellow Sea' during the...