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Aytap
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aytap

Aytap is the modern name for the ancient city of Iotapa (sometimes given as Iotape and Iotape Philadelphos) in Cilicia. The city’s ruins are located in southern Turkey near modern day Alanya (ancient Coracesium). The city was founded...
North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity
Article by Michael Goodyear

North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity

The Mediterranean Sea was the economic focal point of the Roman Empire. Rome’s armies first established an empire across these waters beginning back in the times of the Roman Republic. In 200 CE, the Mediterranean was still the channel...
Tarsus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Tarsus

Tarsus was a city in ancient Cilicia located in the modern-day province of Mersin, Turkey. It is one of the oldest continually inhabited urban centers in the world, dating back to the Neolithic Period. It was built close by the Cydnus River...
Ancient Crete
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Crete

Crete is an island in the eastern Mediterranean which during the Bronze Age produced the influential Minoan civilization with its distinctive architecture and art. An important member of the Greek world in the Archaic period, Crete dipped...
Exploring Western Crete's Archaeological Treasures
Article by Carole Raddato

Exploring Western Crete's Archaeological Treasures

As the cradle of European Civilization and a meeting place of diverse cultures, Crete is a magical island that stands apart in the heart of the Mediterranean sea. Its prominent place in world history dates back to the mysterious and fascinating...
The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers

The sea dogs, as they were disparagingly called by the Spanish authorities, were privateers who, with the consent and sometimes financial support of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), attacked and plundered Spanish colonial settlements...
The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire

The battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE concluded the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE) and consolidated Rome's power in the Mediterranean, finally resulting in Greece becoming a province of Rome in 146 BCE. This engagement...
Curses & Fines on Epitaphs
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Curses & Fines on Epitaphs

The concept of a curse laid on a tomb or gravesite is best known from ancient Egypt but the practice was quite common in other civilizations of antiquity. The tomb or grave was the eternal home of the physical remains of the deceased to which...
Delian League
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Delian League

The Delian League (or Athenian League) was an alliance of Greek city-states led by Athens and formed in 478 BCE to liberate eastern Greek cities from Persian rule and as a defence to possible revenge attacks from Persia following the Greek...
Bronze Age Collapse
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Bronze Age Collapse

The Bronze Age Collapse (also known as Late Bronze Age Collapse) is a modern-day term referring to the decline and fall of major Mediterranean civilizations during the 13th-12th centuries BCE. The precise cause of the Bronze Age Collapse...