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The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade
Book Review by Maria Eugenia Aubet

The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade

The Phoenicians were one of the most influential ancient Mediterranean cultures, and so it is surprising how few general history books there are on the market which cover this fascinating civilization. In addition, of the few books generally...
Carthage: Fact and Myth
Book Review by Jessica Settergren

Carthage: Fact and Myth

Every empire has a cultural rival that both terrifies and fascinates the populace. During Rome's tenure as a Mediterranean superpower, the city had more than a few epic rivalries with its neighbors. Only one was so terrible, so frightening...
Roman Religion
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Religion

In many societies, ancient and modern, religion has performed a major role in their development, and the Roman Empire was no different. From the beginning Roman religion was polytheistic. From an initial array of gods and spirits, Rome added...
Ancient Persian Religion
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Religion

Ancient Persian religion was a polytheistic faith which corresponds roughly to what is known today as ancient Persian mythology. It first developed in the region known as Greater Iran (the Caucasus, Central Asia, South Asia, and West Asia...
Ancient Greek Religion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Greek Religion

In the ancient Greek world, religion was personal, direct, and present in all areas of life. With formal rituals which included animal sacrifices and libations, myths to explain the origins of mankind and give the gods a human face, temples...
Ancient Egyptian Religion
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Religion

Egyptian religion was a combination of beliefs and practices which, in the modern day, would include Egyptian mythology, science, medicine, psychiatry, magic, spiritualism, herbology, as well as the modern understanding of 'religion'...
Maya Religion
Definition by Maria C. Gomez

Maya Religion

Maya religious beliefs are formed on the notion that virtually everything in the world contains k’uh, or sacredness. K’uh and k’uhul, similar terms which are used to explain the spirituality of all inanimate and animate...
Etruscan Religion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Religion

The religion of the Etruscans, the civilization which flourished from the 8th to 3rd century BCE in central Italy, has, like many other features of the culture, long been overshadowed by that of its Greek contemporaries and Roman conquerors...
Inca Religion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Inca Religion

Religion was for the Incas, as with many other ancient cultures, inseparable from politics, history, and society in general. All facets of community life were closely connected to religious beliefs, from marriages to agriculture, government...
Urartu Religion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Urartu Religion

The religion of the Urartu civilization, which flourished principally in ancient Armenia from the 9th to 6th century BCE, was a unique mix of indigenous, Hurrian and Mesopotamian gods and symbolism. The pantheon was headed by the trinity...