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The Edicts of Ashoka the Great
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Edicts of Ashoka the Great

The Edicts of Ashoka are 33 inscriptions engraved on pillars, large stones, and cave walls by Ashoka the Great (r. 268-232 BCE), the third king of the Mauryan Empire (322-185 BCE) of India. One set, the so-called Major Rock Edicts, are consistent...
Faravahar
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Faravahar

The faravahar is the best-known symbol from ancient Persia of the winged sun disk with a seated male figure in the center. It is thought to represent Ahura Mazda, the god of Zoroastrianism, but has also been interpreted to signify other concepts...
Zorvanism
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Zorvanism

Zorvanism (also given as Zuvanism, Zurvanism) was a sect of the Persian religion Zoroastrianism which emerged in the late Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) and flourished during the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE). It is often referenced as...
Carthaginian Trade
Article by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Trade

The Carthaginians, like their Phoenician forefathers, were highly successful traders who sailed the Mediterranean with their goods, and such was their success that Carthage became the richest city in the ancient world. Metals, foodstuffs...
Taoism
Definition by Emily Mark

Taoism

Taoism (also known as Daoism) is a Chinese philosophy attributed to Lao Tzu (c. 500 BCE) which contributed to the folk religion of the people primarily in the rural areas of China and became the official religion of the country under the...
Tyrian Purple
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Tyrian Purple

Tyrian purple (aka Royal purple or Imperial purple) is a dye extracted from the murex shellfish which was first produced by the Phoenician city of Tyre in the Bronze Age. Its difficulty of manufacture, striking purple to red colour range...
Berbers
Definition by Reed Wester-Ebbinghaus

Berbers

The Berbers have occupied North Africa, specifically the Maghreb, since the beginning of recorded history and until the Islamic conquests of the 8th century CE constituted the dominant ethnic group in the Saharan region. Modern Berber speakers...
Alphabet
Definition by Jan van der Crabben

Alphabet

The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By 2700 BCE Egyptian writing had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by...
Eshmunazar II
Definition by carinemahy

Eshmunazar II

Eshmunazar II (also Eshmunazor II) was a king of the Phoenician city of Sidon during the Persian period. He was the third king of his family, after his his father and his grand-father. He was the son of Tabnit and Amashtart, and the grand-son...
Twelve Gods of Persian Mythology
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Gods of Persian Mythology

Ancient Persian Mythology is the term now referencing what was once ancient Iranian religion prior to the rise of Zoroastrianism between c. 1500-1000 BCE. This was a polytheistic faith with a pantheon led by the supreme god Ahura Mazda (“Lord...