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Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future

Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one's hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept...
Ethnicity & Identity Within the Four-Room House
Article by Dana Murray

Ethnicity & Identity Within the Four-Room House

The process of determining ethnicity is a problematic venture, even more so when interpreted through the archaeological record. Despite this issue, evidence, such as the four-room house, has been preserved that can be interpreted to represent...
Diodorus Siculus' Account of the Life of Semiramis
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Diodorus Siculus' Account of the Life of Semiramis

Semiramis is the semi-divine Warrior-Queen of Assyria, whose reign is most clearly documented by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (90-30 BCE) in his great work Bibliotheca Historica ("Historical Library") written over thirty...
The Nimrud Ivories: Their Discovery & History
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Nimrud Ivories: Their Discovery & History

In 1845 CE, the archaeologist Austen Henry Layard began excavations at the ruins of the city of Nimrud in the region which is northern Iraq in the present day. Layard's expedition was part of a larger movement at the time to uncover ancient...
Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean
Article by Mark Cartwright

Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean

Wine was the most popular manufactured drink in the ancient Mediterranean. With a rich mythology, everyday consumption, and important role in rituals wine would spread via the colonization process to regions all around the Mediterranean coastal...
The Delian League, Part 1: Origins Down to the Battle of Eurymedon (480/79-465/4 BCE)
Article by Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 1: Origins Down to the Battle of Eurymedon (480/79-465/4 BCE)

The modern term Delian League refers to the primarily maritime συμμᾰχία or symmachy (offensive-defensive alliance) among various Greek poleis, which emerged after the second Mede invasion of the Hellenes (480-479...
The Delian League, Part 2: From Eurymedon to the Thirty Years Peace (465/4-445/4 BCE)
Article by Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 2: From Eurymedon to the Thirty Years Peace (465/4-445/4 BCE)

The second phase of the Delian League's operations begins with the Hellenic victory over Mede forces at Eurymedon and ends with the Thirty Years Peace between Athens and Sparta (roughly 465/4 – 445/4 BCE).The Greek triumph at Eurymedon...
The Delian League, Part 4: The Ten Years War (431/0-421/0 BCE)
Article by Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 4: The Ten Years War (431/0-421/0 BCE)

The fourth phase of the Delian League encompasses the first part of the Great Peloponnesian War, also referred to as the Ten Years War, sometimes called quite incorrectly The Archidamian War, and it ends with the Peace of Nicias (431/30 &ndash...
Carthaginian Society
Article by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Society

The society of Carthage was dominated by an aristocratic trading class who held all of the important political and religious positions, but below this strata was a cosmopolitan mix of artisans, labourers, mercenaries, slaves, and foreigners...