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Artaphernes
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Artaphernes

Artaphernes (active c. 513-492 BCE, also known as Artafarna) was the satrap of Lydia under the reign of his older brother Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE), monarch of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which was founded by Cyrus II...
Uat-Ur
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Uat-Ur

Uat-Ur was the ancient Egyptian name for the Mediterranean Sea (also known as Wadj-Wer) and is translated as 'the Great Green’. Uat-Ur was the sea itself, not a god of the sea, but was sometimes pictured as a male with breasts heavy...
Tigranes the Great
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Tigranes the Great

Tigranes II or Tigranes the Great ruled as the king of Armenia from c. 95 to c. 56 BCE. Expanding in all directions, at its peak, Tigranes’ Armenian Empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Not before or since would...
Gordium
Definition by Thamis

Gordium

Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. It is situated on the place where the ancient Royal road between Lydia and Assyria/Babylonia crosses the river Sangarius, which flows from central Anatolia to the Black...
Etruscan Tomb Paintings
Article by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Tomb Paintings

The Etruscans flourished in central Italy from the 8th to 3rd century BCE, and one of their greatest legacies is the beautifully painted tombs found in many of their important towns. Tarquinia, Cerveteri, Chiusi, and Vulci, in particular...
Etruscan Trade
Article by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Trade

The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, and their prosperity was largely based on their exploitation of local mineral resources, both through manufactured goods and trade. The Etruscans exchanged...
Etruscan Banquets
Article by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Banquets

The Etruscans, who flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, were noted in antiquity for their sumptuous banquets, drinking parties, and general easy-living. Although such pleasures were probably restricted to the wealthy...
Etruscan Bronze Sculpture
Article by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Bronze Sculpture

The Etruscans produced bronze goods going back to the Villanovan period (1100-750 BCE) and used the material for all manner of objects, but it is their figure sculptures which have become some of the star attractions in museums worldwide...
Trade in the Byzantine Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Byzantine Empire

Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and expansion of the Byzantine Empire. Trade was carried out by ship over vast distances, although for safety, most sailing vessels were restricted to the better weather conditions...
Daily Life in the Byzantine Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Daily Life in the Byzantine Empire

Daily life in the Byzantine Empire, like almost everywhere else before or since, largely depended on one’s birth and the social circumstances of one's parents. There were some opportunities for advancement based on education, the...